Georg Zachmann is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, where he has worked since 2009 on energy and climate policy. His work focuses on regional and distributional impacts of decarbonisation, the analysis and design of carbon, gas and electricity markets, and EU energy and climate policies. Previously, he worked at the German Ministry of Finance, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, the energy think tank LARSEN in Paris, and the policy consultancy Berlin Economics.
Disclaimer of external interests
Closed-door roundtable discussion on the prospects of Ukraine’s green recovery.
We explore in detail the two pillars of energy security: LNG supply and the nature and volume of natural-gas demand reductions.
This contribution explores how Europe can manage without the imports of Russian coal, crude oil, oil products and natural gas.
A structural reform of the electricity market is necessary in light of the increasing demand for electricity and the growing share of renewable energy
At this event, panellists discussed the policies that EU policymakers should implement to alleviate world hunger.
The food crisis creates short-term challenges but also points to systemic issues in the food sector.
The G7 Russian oil price cap is an ambitious but untested instrument. While pitfalls exist, the cap has the potential to be the most potent sanction.
Europe must move beyond blocking agreement on a coordinated solution and undermining EU unity in the face of Russian aggression.
Invitation-only event on European electricity innovation.
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
What are the ideal outcomes for Ukraine's energy system, and what steps must be taken to achieve them?
An EU energy fund is justified, but for different reasons than commonly assumed, with implications for the fund’s design.
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The €200 billion “defence shield” risks undermining European solidarity. This could be avoided by designing it well.
Action to intervene in the gas and electricity wholesale markets is also being taken at European Union level, which is what we analyse in this paper.
In this episode, we look at the State of the Union address delivered by Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission.
The Annual Meetings are Bruegel's flagship event which gathers high-level speakers to discuss the economic topics that affect Europe and the world.
The current crisis looks set to leave behind it a radically different system, but what that system will look like remains an open question
What is economics when faced with war and a burning planet?
Why a “Go It Alone” Approach Will Leave Countries in the Cold This Winter
What would be the economic consequences of a complete halt to Russian gas imports?
A price cap on Russian oil might improve the current western sanctions regime, but effectiveness will depend on the west’s willingness
Without Russian gas, the European Union would have to reduce demand by approximately 15%, with big differences between different parts of Europe
The transition to climate neutrality requires the reallocation of production factors from polluting activities to non-polluting activities.
The platform could become an effective emergency tool to safeguard Europe’s gas supply, but policymakers need to address challenges to make it work.
The ban on most Russian oil significantly scales up the EU response to aggression against Ukraine, but the bloc should stand ready for retaliation.
The EU lacks the coordination structure and transparent data necessary to most effectively navigate an embargo on Russian oil.
Even at this late hour, the European Union should consider taking a different path.
Letter published in Science.
A punitive tariff on all energy imports from Russia would be a better choice than a gradually phased-in embargo on selected fuels.
A tariff on imports of Russian fossil fuels would allow Europe to hit Russia's energy sector without great suffering.
The European Union should apply a tariff on imports of Russian oil; it can be accompanied by a quota for a gradual, conditional phase-out.
The 2 May meeting of EU energy ministers should deliver strong and common EU action. Failing to do so would undermine Europe’s unity, energy security
Infrastructure bottlenecks prevent Russia from selling all the oil it wants to bring to market, even at lower prices.
Even before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, high natural gas prices triggered an estimated European Union demand cut of about 7%.
In this episode of Sound of Economics live we discussed whether REPowerEU can enable Europe to have affordable and secure energy supplies.
The war in Ukraine and consequent sanctions could mean high food prices will endure.
A stop to Russian oil and coal supplies would push Europe into a short and painful adjustment period.
A trans-Atlantic pact between North America and Europe is essential if Europe is to free itself in the short term from its dependence on Russian energ
A timely conversation on Europe's strategic gas reserves.
The European Union can manage without Russian gas next winter, but must be united in taking difficult decisions.
How Europe can protect itself from Russian blackmail.
This Blueprint includes some of the Group’s most prominent voices on the different aspects of the multidimensional issue of green recovery.
The EU taxonomy grossly simplifies a complex and dynamic world. It might help prevent green-washing but other tools are needed to guide green investme
If Russian gas stops flowing, measures to replace supply won’t be enough. The European Union will need to curb demand, implying difficult and costly d