Georg Zachmann is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, where he has worked since 2009 on energy and climate policy. His work focuses on regional and distributional impacts of decarbonisation, the analysis and design of carbon, gas and electricity markets, and EU energy and climate policies. Previously, he worked at the German Ministry of Finance, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, the energy think tank LARSEN in Paris, and the policy consultancy Berlin Economics.
Disclaimer of external interests
This dataset aggregates daily data on European natural gas import flows and storage levels.
This policy brief sets out policy proposals to enhance governance in order to safeguard EU decarbonisation.
A symphony in progress: shaping a new agenda for Europe
EU has embarked on no less than an industrial revolution. A revolution that — unlike those of the past — is set against a tight deadline.
To top up stored gas volumes for the coming winter, Europe can use spare capacity in Ukraine.
This book assesses what must be done to implement industrial policy in a way that will achieve overarching goals while minimising distortions.
How can the European Union achieve its target of eliminating all Russian fossil-fuel imports by 2027?
In its industrial strategy response, the EU must ask if the energy-intensive parts of the value chain should be outsourced permanently.
The German economy coped with the end of Russian gas and could have equally withstood an April 2022 cut-off
As energy and climate economists, we propose that a European energy agency be set up to guide the continent’s transition to net-zero carbon by 2050.
In this paper, we set out a framework for evaluating the many interrelated issues in the current EU electricity market reform.
How can various market reform elements and processes be best timed to address short-term needs while also preparing for longer-term challenges?
EU proposals on stimulating energy investment signal a paradigm shift; much more clarity is needed before they can be agreed.
The challenge now for policymakers and industry alike is to smoothly facilitate a transition toward structurally lower gas consumption.
Russia could try to split the EU with a strategic gas offer. Brussels should therefore re-regulate Russian gas imports.
Despite a goal of economic self-reliance, the European Union’s imports are generally sourced from an increasingly limited set of suppliers.
A new European Union embargo on Russian oil products should not affect EU diesel supplies and prices, but could encourage re-routing by Russia.
Closed-door roundtable discussion on the prospects of Ukraine’s green recovery.
We explore in detail the two pillars of energy security: LNG supply and the nature and volume of natural-gas demand reductions.
This contribution explores how Europe can manage without the imports of Russian coal, crude oil, oil products and natural gas.
A structural reform of the electricity market is necessary in light of the increasing demand for electricity and the growing share of renewable energy
The EU needs a grand bargain that reduces demand, increases supply, and keeps energy markets open.
At this event, panellists discussed the policies that EU policymakers should implement to alleviate world hunger.
The food crisis creates short-term challenges but also points to systemic issues in the food sector.
The G7 Russian oil price cap is an ambitious but untested instrument. While pitfalls exist, the cap has the potential to be the most potent sanction.
Europe must move beyond blocking agreement on a coordinated solution and undermining EU unity in the face of Russian aggression.
Invitation-only event on European electricity innovation.
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
What are the ideal outcomes for Ukraine's energy system, and what steps must be taken to achieve them?
An EU energy fund is justified, but for different reasons than commonly assumed, with implications for the fund’s design.
The €200 billion “defence shield” risks undermining European solidarity. This could be avoided by designing it well.
Action to intervene in the gas and electricity wholesale markets is also being taken at European Union level, which is what we analyse in this paper.
In this episode, we look at the State of the Union address delivered by Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission.
The Annual Meetings are Bruegel's flagship event which gathers high-level speakers to discuss the economic topics that affect Europe and the world.
The current crisis looks set to leave behind it a radically different system, but what that system will look like remains an open question
Why a “Go It Alone” Approach Will Leave Countries in the Cold This Winter
What would be the economic consequences of a complete halt to Russian gas imports?
A price cap on Russian oil might improve the current western sanctions regime, but effectiveness will depend on the west’s willingness
Without Russian gas, the European Union would have to reduce demand by approximately 15%, with big differences between different parts of Europe