Georg Zachmann is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, where he has worked since 2009 on energy and climate policy. His work focuses on regional and distributional impacts of decarbonisation, the analysis and design of carbon, gas and electricity markets, and EU energy and climate policies. Previously, he worked at the German Ministry of Finance, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, the energy think tank LARSEN in Paris, and the policy consultancy Berlin Economics.
Disclaimer of external interests
Action to intervene in the gas and electricity wholesale markets is also being taken at European Union level, which is what we analyse in this paper.
The current crisis looks set to leave behind it a radically different system, but what that system will look like remains an open question
Why a “Go It Alone” Approach Will Leave Countries in the Cold This Winter
What would be the economic consequences of a complete halt to Russian gas imports?
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Without Russian gas, the European Union would have to reduce demand by approximately 15%, with big differences between different parts of Europe
The transition to climate neutrality requires the reallocation of production factors from polluting activities to non-polluting activities.
The platform could become an effective emergency tool to safeguard Europe’s gas supply, but policymakers need to address challenges to make it work.
The ban on most Russian oil significantly scales up the EU response to aggression against Ukraine, but the bloc should stand ready for retaliation.
The EU lacks the coordination structure and transparent data necessary to most effectively navigate an embargo on Russian oil.
A tariff on imports of Russian fossil fuels would allow Europe to hit Russia's energy sector without great suffering.
Even at this late hour, the European Union should consider taking a different path.
Letter published in Science.
A punitive tariff on all energy imports from Russia would be a better choice than a gradually phased-in embargo on selected fuels.
The European Union should apply a tariff on imports of Russian oil; it can be accompanied by a quota for a gradual, conditional phase-out.
The 2 May meeting of EU energy ministers should deliver strong and common EU action. Failing to do so would undermine Europe’s unity, energy security
The most efficient way for Europe to sanction Russian energy would not be an embargo, but the introduction of an import tariff that can be used flexib
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Global food production will be sufficient to feed the global population this year. But export bans, high prices and increasing transport cost might pr
A stop to Russian oil and coal supplies would push Europe into a short and painful adjustment period. But if managed well, disruptions would remain te
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The European Union can manage without Russian gas next winter, but must be united in taking difficult decisions, accepting that in many cases it won’t
How Europe can protect itself from Russian blackmail.
This Blueprint includes some of the Group’s most prominent voices on the different aspects of the multidimensional issue of green recovery.
The EU taxonomy grossly simplifies a complex and dynamic world. It might help prevent green-washing but other tools are needed to guide green investme
If Russian gas stops flowing, measures to replace supply won’t be enough. The European Union will need to curb demand, implying difficult and costly d
Our analysis highlights that the current national energy and climate plans (NECPs) of EU countries are insufficient to achieve a cost-efficient pathwa
Europe may not have enough natural gas in storage for the coming winter; close monitoring of the situation will be essential.
Alongside short-term measures to shield consumers from rising energy prices, EU countries have set out their positions on medium-term measures to prev
Determining a robust mix of energy carriers for a carbon-neutral EU
Study for the German Federal Foreign Office produced by Bruegel, the Kiel Institute for the World Economy and DIW Berlin.
Energy transitions manifest themselves across space and time. While necessary targets for decarbonisation are apparent, the accompanying shifts in spa
The only thing Europe can quickly do to prevent a potentially difficult winter is to actively promote energy conservation in both the residential and
Europe’s gas supply security could more effectively be safeguarded by ensuring that unused alternatives are maintained.
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Surging natural gas prices in Europe, driven by rising demand and tight supply, are pushing up electricity prices; to prevent volatility, governments
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Die deutsche Industriepolitik folgt bisher keiner klaren Strategie, sondern ist von Unternehmensinteressen getrieben. Das ist der falsche Weg.
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Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit
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What will be the impact of Brexit on the EU energy system? With or without the UK, the EU will be able to complete its market, to achieve its climate
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European Union green bonds, as promised by European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen, might be better linked to the bloc's achievement of its
Over the past five years conflict has led to a deterioration of Russo-Ukrainian economic relations while ties with the EU have been deepened. This shi
In the wake of COVID-19, some economic recovery policies will help green the economy – for example, energy renovation of buildings. But there are limi
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Since the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis, Bruegel’s new tool has gauged the impact of the crisis on economic activity by tracking changes in electri
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Concern is growing in the European Union that a rapprochement between Russia and China could have negative implications for the EU.
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The new members of the European Parliament and European Commission who start their mandates in 2019 should put in place major policy elements to unlea
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The technological development will dramatically impact decarbonisation cost. In this blog post, the author suggests that national decarbonisation stra
The EU needs a new approach to long-term climate strategy to ensure that EU climate policy is brought in line with the goals of Paris and takes into a
Simone Tagliapietra and Georg Zachmann write on the climate governance lesson European governments should learn from the "gilets jaunes" experience.
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Testimony before the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy
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Intel suffered only minimal pain in the stock market following revelations about the ‘Meltdown’ hardware vulnerability. But if the market won’t compel
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China, the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) are responsible for the majority of global emissions of greenhouse gases, and produce about
Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, 1 December 2016.
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Georg Zachmann argues that the Nord Stream 2 project is a danger to the European consensus on relations with Russia. What is more, it could undermine