Dataset

European natural gas imports

Publishing date
29 October 2021
Gas sea platform

Summary

  • This dataset aggregates daily data on European natural gas import flows and storage levels.
  • Acute interest has developed in these indicators in response to soaring energy prices which are largely due to a tight natural gas market.
  • The behaviour of Gazprom in using (or not using) specific supply routes and storage facilities has been the focus of public attention.
  • We hope this dataset – which we will regularly update - provides some easily usable insight into the current status of European natural gas supply situation.

Last update: 9 August 2022

To get access to the data, please get in contact with [email protected].

Figure 1 shows weekly extra-EU imports of natural gas for 2021, compared with weekly minimum and maximum import values for the period 2015-2020. By selecting from the dropdown, the figure shows total imports but also imports exclusively from Russia, Norway, Algeria, and via liquefied natural gas (gas transported by ship from around the world).

The map (Figure 2) displays the most relevant pipeline import routes into the EU. The largest share of gas is delivered from Russia via four distinct corridors (Nord Stream, Yamal (via Poland), Ukraine, and Turkstream (via Turkey). These different Russian gas routes are at the heart of current geopolitical tensions surrounding the completion of Nord Stream II. Figure 3 shows weekly import data via each of these routes, again comparing to the minimum and maximum values from the period 2015-2020.

Figure 2: Main EU Natural Gas Imports routes covered in our analysis

Gas pipeline map of Europe

Source: Bruegel

Figure 4 shows actual daily imports and storage levels for the last 30 days. Imports are split by Russian routes, as well as shown for Norway, Algeria, and LNG.

Alongside import volumes, the levels of storage within the EU’s borders are key for providing (or not) reassurance to markets.

In Figure 5, we provide data on current weekly levels of storage in the EU.

In the first tab of Figure 6, we display the current storage level and the relative maximum storage capacity by country. In the second tab, we show the filling occurred in the last 30 days along the 80% target to be achieved by November 2022 behind the European Commission's recommendation.

We aggregate the data using the API provided by Entsog. To ensure consistency, we construct our dataset matching import flows to those provided by the IEA. We perform quality checks by comparing each import point with the IEA. We include all extra-EU trading points, apart from those with Switzerland and the Balkans.

Appendix A1 explains how we match ENTSOG points with IEA data, and then attribute these points to the exporting country/route.

For storage levels, we used APIs provided by Gas Infrastructure Europe that can be found on the AGSI+ website.

Gazprom storage data show the aggregated values for the storage points of Jemgum and Rehden in Germany and Haidach in Austria. These are the three EU storage facilities with a majority equity stake owned by Gazprom. Apart from these, Gazprom also has equity stakes in Damborice (in the Czech Republic) and in Etzel and Katharina (in Germany). Moreover, Gazprom also has shares of capacity at other storage points in the EU (1.9 bcm/4.1 bcm in Bergermee for example), however, in this dataset we aggregate data only coming from facilities in which Gazprom has a majority stake. The methodology changed on 15 December 2021. On August the 5th, Haidach volumes were split among 3 Storage System Operators (SSOs) on the AGSI+ website, one of the SSO is RAG storage pool, which includes multiple facilities and it is hence dropped in our aggregation for Haidach.

Appendix A2 shows the 2021 dates which correspond to the week numbers shown in the figures.

The data is subject to the author’s best interpretation of that provided by Entsog.

Comments to improve the coverage and the estimates are welcome. Please send your comments to [email protected]

Data Policy: This page provides a number of Bruegel datasets for public use. Users can freely use our data in its unchanged form or after any transformation for any purpose and can freely distribute it, provided that proper attribution is made to the source, but not in any way that suggests that Bruegel endorses the user or their use of the data.

About the authors

  • Georg Zachmann

    Georg Zachmann is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, where he has worked since 2009 on energy and climate policy. His work focuses on regional and distributional impacts of decarbonisation, the analysis and design of carbon, gas and electricity markets, and EU energy and climate policies. Previously, he worked at the German Ministry of Finance, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, the energy think tank LARSEN in Paris, and the policy consultancy Berlin Economics.

  • Giovanni Sgaravatti

    Giovanni works at Bruegel as a Research Assistant. He studied Economics (BSc) at University of Venice - Ca’ Foscari - including one semester at the University of Melbourne, and holds a Master’s degree in Quantitative Economics obtained in Venice - having done the whole second year at the Economics School of Louvain.

    Before joining Bruegel Giovanni worked in the Productivity branch of the Office for National Statistics in the United Kingdom. As a trainee he worked at the Delegation of the European Union to Chile and at BusinessEurope. His fields of analysis span from productivity, the labour market, tax avoidance, international trade to climate change.

    Giovanni is an Italian native speaker, is fluent in English and has good working knowledge of French and Spanish.

  • Ben McWilliams

    Ben is working at Bruegel as a Research Analyst in the field of climate and energy policy. He studied his BSc Economics at the University of Warwick, with one year spent studying at the University of Monash, Melbourne. He then studied an MSc in Economic Policy at Utrecht University.

    His MSc thesis investigated carbon taxation in British Columbia, Canada, and his research interests revolve largely around energy and environmental topics. Further research topics of particular interest include: economic history (20th century), labour markets, and industrial policy.

    Ben is a dual English and Dutch citizen.

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How it can be done

Rüdiger Bachmann, David Baqaee, Christian Bayer, Moritz Kuhn, Andreas Löschel, Ben McWilliams, Benjamin Moll, Andreas Peichl, Karen Pittel, Moritz Schularick and Georg Zachmann