Climate change is the defining challenge of our time. Adequately responding to it requires a profound transformation in the way we produce and consume energy, as well as a wider reorganization of our economic model. Bruegel scholars contribute to this difficult but fascinating task by providing timely analysis on the European climate policy developments, as well as on the evolution of global climate governance. All of this with a special attention to the macroeconomic and geopolitical implications of the European and global decarbonisation process.
Energy is at the core of the climate challenge, and at the same time it represents a fundamental driver of global geopolitical and geoeconomic dynamics. Bruegel scholars work on all the three elements of the energy policy triangle (sustainability, security, and competitiveness), with a view that keeping it in balance alongside the decarbonisation journey represents a key challenge for policymakers in Europe and beyond. This task got even more difficult in 2022, as the Russian invasion of Ukraine ignited a major energy crisis that has pushed Europe to rapidly re-design its energy map. Bruegel contributes to this difficult endeavour by providing policy insights, as well as reliable data on energy flows and policies to better inform policy choices.
This dataset aggregates daily data on European natural gas import flows and storage levels.
Examining the past, present and future of the global energy system.
How can the European Union achieve its target of eliminating all Russian fossil-fuel imports by 2027?
Having weathered the 2022 energy crisis, it is time to consider its longer-term repercussions on the European Union’s industry.
How will the EU support developing countries in mitigating carbon emissions in their industries as a result of the CBAM Regulation.
This policy brief sets out policy proposals to enhance governance in order to safeguard EU decarbonisation.
In its industrial strategy response, the EU must ask if the energy-intensive parts of the value chain should be outsourced permanently.
Given the need to reduce large budget deficits, what are some strategies for increasing public climate spending?
A new European Union embargo on Russian oil products should not affect EU diesel supplies and prices, but could encourage re-routing by Russia.
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
COP27 should create the basis of a global loss-and-damage fund to help vulnerable countries already suffering from climate disasters.
The European Union faces recession, but the way in which policymakers manage the energy crisis will determine its depth and duration.
An EU energy fund is justified, but for different reasons than commonly assumed, with implications for the fund’s design.
The €200 billion “defence shield” risks undermining European solidarity. This could be avoided by designing it well.
Despite high prices, China’s substantial spare oil refining capacity remains restricted.
A price cap on Russian oil might improve the current western sanctions regime, but effectiveness will depend on the west’s willingness