Climate change is the defining challenge of our time. Adequately responding to it requires a profound transformation in the way we produce and consume energy, as well as a wider reorganization of our economic model. Bruegel scholars contribute to this difficult but fascinating task by providing timely analysis on the European climate policy developments, as well as on the evolution of global climate governance. All of this with a special attention to the macroeconomic and geopolitical implications of the European and global decarbonisation process.
Energy is at the core of the climate challenge, and at the same time it represents a fundamental driver of global geopolitical and geoeconomic dynamics. Bruegel scholars work on all the three elements of the energy policy triangle (sustainability, security, and competitiveness), with a view that keeping it in balance alongside the decarbonisation journey represents a key challenge for policymakers in Europe and beyond. This task got even more difficult in 2022, as the Russian invasion of Ukraine ignited a major energy crisis that has pushed Europe to rapidly re-design its energy map. Bruegel contributes to this difficult endeavour by providing policy insights, as well as reliable data on energy flows and policies to better inform policy choices.
This dataset aggregates daily data on European natural gas import flows and storage levels.
Greater alignment of the major economic powers is needed around a collective effort to improve security of supply for decarbonisation goods.
This paper highlights that recessions result in permanent increases in energy efficiency and in the share of renewables in total electricity.
Examining the past, present and future of the global energy system.
How can the European Union achieve its target of eliminating all Russian fossil-fuel imports by 2027?
This workshop examines EU funding for air quality improvements and aims to identify best practices.
What are the economic and cooperative mechanisms for developed countries to assist EMDEs in decarbonization?
This policy brief sets out policy proposals to enhance governance in order to safeguard EU decarbonisation.
A new European Union embargo on Russian oil products should not affect EU diesel supplies and prices, but could encourage re-routing by Russia.
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
COP27 should create the basis of a global loss-and-damage fund to help vulnerable countries already suffering from climate disasters.
The European Union faces recession, but the way in which policymakers manage the energy crisis will determine its depth and duration.
An EU energy fund is justified, but for different reasons than commonly assumed, with implications for the fund’s design.
The €200 billion “defence shield” risks undermining European solidarity. This could be avoided by designing it well.
Despite high prices, China’s substantial spare oil refining capacity remains restricted.
A price cap on Russian oil might improve the current western sanctions regime, but effectiveness will depend on the west’s willingness