Download publication

External Publication

How to provide liquidity to banks after resolution in Europe’s banking union

Banks deemed to be failing or likely to fail in the banking union are either put into insolvency/liquidation or enter a resolution scheme to protect the public interest. After resolution but before full market confidence is restored, the liquidity needs of resolved banks might exceed what can be met through regular monetary policy operations or emergency liquidity assistance. All liquidity needs that emerge must be met for resolution to be a success. In the euro area, this can only be done credibly for systemically important banks by the central bank.

By: , , and Date: November 22, 2018 Topic: European Parliament

This paper was provided at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament and commissioned by the Directorate-General for Internal Policies of the Union and supervised by its Economic Governance Support Unit (EGOV). The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. The original paper is available on the European Parliament’s webpage (here). © European Union, 2018.

When banks are deemed to be ‘failing or likely to fail’ in the European Union’s banking union, they are either put into insolvency/liquidation or enter a ‘resolution scheme’. The Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) typically decides that a bank is failing or likely to fail after consulting the Single Resolution Board (SRB).

Funding of banks after resolution has recently become part of the euro-area political debate following the resolution of Banco Popular. Conceptually, two aspects have to be distinguished when considering funding of banks in resolution: how to restore solvency and how to provide liquidity. Solvency is restored through bail-in and recapitalisation if needed, including from public funds. Liquidity needs, however, need to be met differently.

In normal times, the European Central Bank (ECB) and national central banks (NCBs) provide liquidity either through ordinary monetary policy operations (ECB) or through emergency liquidity assistance (NCBs). In times of resolution, a gap emerges in the European framework: the treaties allow the ECB to provide liquidity only against collateral. But what happens if the newly-created bank (or old restructured bank) lacks sufficient collateral to meet its liquidity needs? A framework is needed to fill this gap. The more credible the framework, the less likely it will actually be drawn on.

Only the ECB is able to provide liquidity credibly to large banks after resolution. A scheme solely relying on the Single Resolution Fund (SRF), even if it could draw on the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), would not be credible as it has limited firing power. But in the absence of appropriate collateral, the ECB would need to get a public guarantee against possible fiscal risks.

For as long as banking union remains incomplete on both institutional and economic grounds, we argue that there is a role for the ESM, the SRB/SRF and the national treasury (in which the bank in resolution is located) to provide public guarantees. The respective finance minister(s) would have to play a role in resolution decisions and state aid concerns need to be accounted for.

Once banking union is complete, the guarantee should be given only by the euro-area fiscal body (ESM or a euro-area treasury) with recourse to the SRF to ensure that losses remain with the industry. The ESM treaty would need to be revised to be able to give guarantees and backstop the banking union. Moreover, the ESM managing director needs to get the discretion to act without approval of all ESM members during the resolution weekend. The ESM managing director should then be involved in the resolution decision, similar to other jurisdictions, and would need to be held accountable ex post by the responsible parliament(s).

Read article
 

External Publication

European Parliament

Tailoring prudential policy to bank size: the application of proportionality in the US and euro area

In-depth analysis prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

By: Alexander Lehmann and Nicolas Véron Topic: Banking and capital markets, European Parliament, Macroeconomic policy Date: October 14, 2021
Read about event More on this topic
 

Upcoming Event

Nov
4
14:00

European monetary policy: lessons from the past two decades

This event will feature the presentation of “Monetary Policy in Times of Crisis – A Tale of Two Decades of the European Central Bank."

Speakers: Grégory Claeys and Wolfgang Lemke Topic: Macroeconomic policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read article More on this topic
 

Blog Post

How have the European Central Bank’s negative rates been passed on?

Negative rate cuts are not that different from ‘standard’ rate cuts. Like them, they reduce banks’ margins, but this effect does not appear to be amplified below 0%.

By: Grégory Claeys and Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: July 7, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

What to expect from the ECB’s monetary policy strategy review?

Emphasis will be placed on greening monetary policy and clarifying the ECB's price stability objective, but is this enough?

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 23, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

Inflation!? Germany, the euro area and the European Central Bank

There is concern in Germany about rising prices, but expectations and wage data show no sign of excess pressures; German inflation should exceed 2% to support euro-area rebalancing but is unlikely to do so on sustained basis.

By: Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 9, 2021
Read article Download PDF More by this author
 

External Publication

European Parliament

What Are the Effects of the ECB’s Negative Interest Rate Policy?

This paper explores the potential effects (and side effects) of negative rates in theory and examines the evidence to determine what these effects have been in practice in the euro area.

By: Grégory Claeys Topic: Banking and capital markets, European Parliament, Testimonies Date: June 9, 2021
Read article
 

Blog Post

European governance

Emergency Liquidity Assistance: A new lease of life or kiss of death?

Use of Emergency Liquidity Assistance to prop up euro-area banks needs to be more transparent; available evidence suggests its use has not always been within the rules.

By: Francesco Papadia and Leonardo Cadamuro Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: May 28, 2021
Read article More by this author
 

Opinion

European governance

Europe must fix its fiscal rules

The pandemic has shown that the EU’s spending framework reflects an outdated economic orthodoxy.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: May 27, 2021
Read article More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

A stronger euro comes with more responsibility

What does strategic sovereignty mean to and for Europe?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: May 19, 2021
Read article
 

Opinion

European governance

The ECB needs political guidance on secondary objectives

While EU Treaties clearly stipulate that the ECB “shall support the general objectives of the European Union”, it is not appropriate to simply stand by, wishing that the ECB will use its discretionary power to act on them. Political institutions of the EU should prioritise the secondary goals to legitimise the ECB’s action.

By: Pervenche Béres, Grégory Claeys, Nik de Boer, Panicos O. Demetriades, Sebastian Diessner, Stanislas Jourdan, Jens van ‘t Klooster and Vivien Schmidt Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: April 22, 2021
Read article
 

Blog Post

European governance

Urgent reform of the EU resolution framework is needed

In this blog, the authors argue that two aspects of the European resolution framework are particularly in need of reform – the bail-in regime and the resolution mechanism for cross-border banks – and propose a reform of both.

By: Mathias Dewatripont, Lucrezia Reichlin and André Sapir Topic: Banking and capital markets, European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: April 16, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

European governance

More Europe or less Europe?

Europe is often a ship with multiple captains. The boat moves forward in calm seas, but when the slightest wind puts it off course, it is not easy to steer that boat. It is not so much a question of more Europe rather than less, but of achieving ‘one Europe’. A ‘more-or-less Europe’ is an invitation to go nowhere.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: European governance Date: April 14, 2021
Load more posts