COVID-19 will continue to affect all aspects of our lives and by extension the economy. This resulted in a continuation of major policy measures both at EU and member-state levels to manage the health and economic crises.
At European level, the Next Generation EU programme has radically changed the way the EU finances itself, interacts with financial markets and supports national recoveries. In late April, countries began submitting their Recovery and Resilience Plans. Bruegel scholars monitor the national plans as they were submitted, providing a comprehensive dataset and a series of analyses throughout the year.
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
A robust economic system that can sustain shocks of any nature, including political, is needed.
With winter fast approaching, the absence of common guidelines for national energy policies should be regarded as an economic emergency.
EU countries seem to be converging on a set of reform objectives. But can these be jointly satisfied? Two recent proposals offer some hope.
In this paper we assess both the immediate economic impact and the likely longer-term impact of sanctions on the Russian economy.
To meet the challenges of an age in which the threat of war is always present, Germany and Europe must invest heavily in military innovation.
An analysis of German-Italian spreads under five Italian governments shows that the gap was biggest when Italian policies worried markets most.