Beyond the WTO? An anatomy of EU and US preferential trade agreements

Publishing date
10 February 2009

This Blueprint looks in detail at all the provisions of all the PTAs signed by the EC or the US and other WTO members. Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis and André Sapir find that Europe and the US have adopted different approaches to PTAs; however, both powers may also be seeking to project their priorities.

About the authors

  • André Sapir

    André Sapir, a Belgian citizen, is a Senior fellow at Bruegel. He is also University Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and Research fellow of the London-based Centre for Economic Policy Research.

    Between 1990 and 2004, he worked for the European Commission, first as Economic Advisor to the Director-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and then as Principal Economic Advisor to President Prodi, also heading his Economic Advisory Group. In 2004, he published 'An Agenda for a Growing Europe', a report to the president of the Commission by a group of independent experts that is known as the Sapir report. After leaving the Commission, he first served as External Member of President Barroso’s Economic Advisory Group and then as Member of the General Board (and Chair of the Advisory Scientific Committee) of the European Systemic Risk Board based at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt.

    André has written extensively on European integration, international trade and globalisation. He holds a PhD in economics from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, where he worked under the supervision of Béla Balassa. He was elected Member of the Academia Europaea and of the Royal Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts.

  • Henrik Horn

    Henrik Horn is a former Non-Resident Senior Fellow of Bruegel. He joined Bruegel in October 2006. His research is mainly focused on economic aspects of trade law and competition law, and he is responsible for Bruegel's research on regional trade agreements.

    He is a Senior Research Fellow at the Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Stockholm, and Chief Reporter for an American Law Institute project on the Principles of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreement. Previously, he held positions as Professor of International Economics at Stockholm University, as a judge in the Swedish supreme court for competition law cases, and worked for four years at the Economic Research and Analysis Division of the WTO.


  • Petros C. Mavroidis

    Petros C. Mavroidis is a Non-resident fellow at Bruegel and a Professor of Law at Columbia University. He is a member of the Institut de droit international and has acted as chief reporter (along with Henrik Horn) for the American Law Institute study “Principles of International Trade: the WTO”. He has previously taught at EUI (Florence), Princeton, and ULB (Brussels), and has been employed by the WTO where he is now advising developing countries.

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