André Sapir, a Belgian citizen, is Senior Fellow at Bruegel. He is also University Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and Research Fellow of the London-based Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Between 1990 and 2004, he worked for the European Commission, first as Economic Advisor to the Director-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and then as Principal Economic Advisor to President Prodi, also heading his Economic Advisory Group. In 2004, he published 'An Agenda for a Growing Europe', a report to the president of the Commission by a group of independent experts that is known as the Sapir report. After leaving the Commission, he first served as External Member of President Barroso’s Economic Advisory Group and then as Member of the General Board (and Chair of the Advisory Scientific Committee) of the European Systemic Risk Board based at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt.
André has written extensively on European integration, international trade, and globalisation. He holds a PhD in economics from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, where he worked under the supervision of Béla Balassa. He was elected Member of the Academia Europaea and of the Royal Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts.
Disclaimer of external interests
The Silicon Valley Bank collapse: Prudential regulation lessons for Europe and the world
In the EU, there is no bank like SVB and supervision appears better than in the US, but the resolution framework remains incomplete.
Development finance evolution: options for strengthening MDBs financial capacity
How can Multilateral Development Banks increase their capacity to address shared global challenges of the 21st century?
The EU Net Zero Industry Act and the risk of reviving past failures
How the EU might respond to clean teach subsidies, in the form of a leaked draft law entitled the Net Zero Industry Act (NZIA), is deeply worrisome.
Can the EU and US correct the course on trade relations?
How Europe should answer the US Inflation Reduction Act
This policy brief explains what is in the IRA, the impact on the EU and other economies, and how the EU should react.
Reshoring, nearshoring or friend-shoring: What is the future of global supply chains?
What steps should policymakers take to improve supply chain robustness and resilience?
Global cooperation in times of geopolitical strife
How can we build a sustainable system of international cooperation that allows for nations to work together despite their differences?
The European Commission's fiscal rules proposal: a bold plan with flaws that can be fixed
The European Commission’s proposal for reforming the EU fiscal rules is far-reaching, but its shortcomings need to be addressed.
Crisis-proofing the EU: internal market in the service of external resilience
How should the EU build resilience against external shocks?
Is globalisation really doomed?
Globalisation is under attack; to preserve its benefits, healthy domestic social contracts are essential.
The Sound of Economics Live: Assessing the State of the Union 2022
In this episode, we look at the State of the Union address delivered by Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission.
Bruegel Annual Meetings, 6-7 September 2022
The Annual Meetings are Bruegel's flagship event which gathers high-level speakers to discuss the economic topics that affect Europe and the world.
EU Enlargement in a New Light
A collection of articles compiled following a joint Bruegel-Intereconomics event on EU enlargment.
EU enlargement in a new light
What would increase government support around EU enlargement, and what role could membership play in future peace talks?
War in Ukraine: Ukraine's place in the EU
In the latest installment of the Sound of Economics Live we debated whether Ukraine's accession to the EU should be facilitated.
Does the war in Ukraine call for a new Next Generation EU?
The European Union should take significant economic measures in response to the war in Ukraine, but a new Next Generation EU is not needed yet.
From viruses to wars: recent disruptions to global trade and value chains
How have events in recent years impacted global trade and value chains and how can we strengthen these against future disruptions?
Green public procurement: A neglected tool in the European Green Deal toolbox?
A new EU regulatory action in public procurement could unlock the potential of green public procurement and add an important element to the European G
How should the EU respond to Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine’s membership aspirations?
European Union membership for Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine is at present unrealistic, but they should be offered more than Association Agreements.
Towards an inventory of corporate subsidies by China, the EU and the USA
In this event, panellists discussed corporate subsidies by China, the European Union and the United States.
Inside the European crises: a conversation with Marco Buti
At this event Marco Buti discusses his new book, in which he gives an insiders look at European policy making.
Advancing global value and supply chains to mitigate the challenges arising from the pandemic
Session at the 1st ASIA-EUROPE ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS FORUM: Transitioning to a New Normal: Leveraging Global Value Chains, Multilateralism and the 4IR
The future of EU-Africa relations
Bruegel Annual Meetings, Day 1 - A discussion of the state of play and outlook of EU-Africa relations.
Bruegel Annual Meetings, 1-3 September 2021
The European Union’s carbon border mechanism and the WTO
To avoid any backlash, the European Union should work with other World Trade Organisation members to define basic principles of CBAM.
Strengthening the weak links: future of supply chains
What new supply chains trends will we see in the post-pandemic era?
After COVID-19: a most wanted recovery
This event was part of the T20 Spring Roundtables and focused on strategies for a swift and sustainable economic recovery for Europe.
China and the WTO: (How) can they live together?
What changes can be made to make China and the WTO more compatible with each other?
Urgent reform of the EU resolution framework is needed
In this blog, the authors argue that two aspects of the European resolution framework are particularly in need of reform – the bail-in regime and the
An alpine divide? Comparing economic cultures in Germany and Italy
A discussion of Italian and German macro-economic cultures and performances.
Is the European Union’s investment agreement with China underrated?
The European Union-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment binds Chinese liberalisation of its foreign investment regulations under an internation
Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: Greening the EU trade?
Assessing CBAM from a trade perspective.
Getting America Back In The Game: A Multilateral Perspective
How can friends of the multilateral system re-engage the United States under President-elect Biden?
China and the WTO: Why Multilateralism Still Matters
An examination of China’s participation in the World Trade Organization, the conflicts it has caused, and how WTO reforms could ease them.
The double irony of the new UK-EU trade relationship
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement signed between the European Union and the United Kingdom goes against six decades of UK efforts to avoid being eco
Europe and India: Comparing Approaches to Global Economic Challenges
Stakeholders from government, private sector, media and academia/institutions come together to review India-EU relations.
Data flows, artificial intelligence and international trade: impacts and prospects for the value chains of the future
In-depth briefing and analysis on the issues of digital trade and the geopolitics of trade provided to the European Parliament.
Socio-economic effects of digital trade and artificial intelligence on EU industries including their value chains and EU imports and exports with major trade partners
Testimony before the European Parliament on the subject of digital trade.
How can the EU and Japan boost collaboration and multilateralism around the globe?
Multilateralism and global collaboration: the case of Japan and the EU.
The Sound of Economics Live: The future of EU-UK relations (again!)
At the eleventh hour of negotiations, what will the future of the EU-UK relationship look like?
Why has COVID-19 hit different European Union economies so differently?
All European Union countries are undergoing severe output losses as a consequence of COVID-19, but some have been hurt more than others. Factors poten
The Sound of Economics Live: The State of the Union going forward
In the first Sound of Economics Live episode after summer we look at the State of the Union address delivered by Ursula von der Leyen.
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2020 - Day 1
The Annual Meetings are Bruegel's flagship event which gathers high-level speakers to discuss the economic topics that affect Europe and the world.
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2020
Bruegel annual meetings, 1-3 September 2020
Political Assessment of Possible Reactions of EU Main Trading Partners to EU Border Carbon Measures
This briefing was prepared for the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade (INTA).
Keeping trade open during and after Covid-19
This event examines the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on open markets and connected supply chains globally.
The Sound of Economics Live: Post-Council commentary
Can the European leaders meeting at the Council come together for a comprehensive recovery package?
The Sound of Economics Live: Can the Eurogroup save the day?
In this episode of The Sound of Economics, we analyse the Eurogroup's 'rescue plan' amidst the economic fallout brought about by the COVID-19 health c
What the EU should do and not do on trade in medical equipment
The European Union has introduced export controls on some medical supplies. This was a mistake. It should announce that it is withdrawing the measure,
CANCELLED: India-EU Partnership: New Vistas for the Next Decade
Policymakers, academics and private sector actors from the EU and India come together to work on common issues and explore further areas of cooperatio
An effective economic response to the Coronavirus in Europe
'Whatever it takes' needs to be the motto to preserve lives and reduce the impact on the economy of the epidemic.
On gains, losses, and trade-offs: the case of Border Carbon Adjustment
How will the border carbon adjustment be implemented and what will be the implications?
A post-Brexit agreement for research and innovation
What is the future of EU's and UK's relationship on research and innovation?
China and the WTO: towards a better fit
This session at the WTO Public Forum, in Geneva, will discuss a proposal for the WTO to accommodate China better while retaining its priciples.
A fresh perspective on EU-Turkey relations: still a possibility?
Examining the mutual benefits of a EU-Turkey customs union.
Questions to Phil Hogan, Commissioner-designate for Trade
At the presentation of her team for the next European Commission, President-elect Ursula von der Leyen declared that hers will be a ‘geopolitical Comm
EU-Singapore relations in a global context
At this event Minister S. Iswaran and Commissioner Malmström will discuss Singapore-EU relations, following the signing of a FTA in 2018 and in the co
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2019, 4-5 September
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2019
Bruegel's 2019 Annual Meetings will be held on 4-5 September and feature the launch of Bruegel's Memos to the New European Commission.
Border Carbon Tariffs: Giving Up on Trade to Save the Climate?
Ursula von der Leyen plans to introduce a border carbon tax to avoid that cutting EU carbon emissions forces EU companies to move their activities abr
A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership
Memo to the presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. 'A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership' by Maria Demertzis, André Sa
Past, present, and future EU trade policy: a conversation with Commissioner Malmström
What was trade policy during the last European Commission? What will be the future of European trade under the next Commission?
China and the world trade organisation: towards a better fit
China’s participation in the WTO has been anything but smooth, as its self-proclaimed socialist market economy system has alienated its trading partne
Spitzenkandidaten series: Frans Timmermans
The sixth event in the The Road to Europe - Brussels Briefing Live: Spitzenkandidaten series. The series features the lead candidates for the European
Promoting sustainable and inclusive growth and convergence in the European Union
This Policy Contribution was written for the Informal ECOFIN Meeting, Bucharest, 5 April 2019. The authors look at the EU’s economic agenda, discussin
France’s institutional system favours rebellion against its leader
The 'yellow vest' movement proves that France's political and budgetary centralism, as the source of citizens' feelings of abandonment and revolt, mus
Rules-based trading system and EU-Australia
At this event the Australian Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment, Senator the Hon Simon Birmingham will speak about Australia-EU bilateral trad
International trade and the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement
This event; jointly organised by Bruegel and the Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University, will discuss the EU-Japan trade deal and asses its imp
The EU - Japan Economic Partnership Agreement
This paper was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on International Trade (INTA) and analyses the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement
One size does not fit all: European integration by differentiation
The need for reform of the EU is increasingly urgent. The authors of this policy brief suggest a new governance model, combining a bare-bones EU with
Perils and potential: China-US-EU trade relations
We are hosting a number of Chinese and EU experts to discuss trade relations between the three forces.
High public debt in euro-area countries: comparing Belgium and Italy
This Policy Contribution looks at the evolution of public debt in Belgium and Italy since 1990 and uses the debt dynamics equation to explain the cont
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2018
The 2018 Annual Meetings will be held on 3-4 September and will feature sessions on European and global economic governance, as well as finance, ener
International trade under attack: what strategy for Europe?
This Policy Contribution analyses the economic consequences of a full-scale trade war. The US position, focusing on bilateral trade imbalances presuma
Europe should avoid a no-deal Brexit
The UK government finally tabled a serious proposal for the country’s future relationship with the European Union (EU). The White Paper puts the ball
State of transatlantic trade relations
A conversation on transatlantic relations with Michael Froman.
Protecting EU firms without protectionism
Do we need more effective support for EU companies, more targeted to threatened sectors of strategic importance to the EU? Do we need to revise our c
Making a reality of Europe’s Capital Markets Union
It is high time to make the CMU project real.The authors of this publication suggest that capital markets will only transform with concrete action and
What European trade policy in face of an emerging global trade war
On 25 April Bruegel is pleased to host Bernd Lange, Chair of the European Parliament's committee on International Trade.
Challenges and opportunities for the EU digital single market
At this event, we looked into the progress made towards achieving the main priorities for strengthening the digital single market, the opportunities a
The current state and future of the world trading system
This event discussed the current state of the multilateral trading system and how it might evolve in the future.
The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund: Time for a reset
It is only in the last decade that the EU has had an active policy to reintegrate workers who lost their jobs as a result of globalisation, through th
Europe in a new world order
The EU is a relatively open economy and has benefited from the multilateral system. We argue that the EU should defend its strategic interests. The Si
The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund: Easing the pain from trade?
With the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF), the EU now has an instrument to help workers negatively affected by trade find new jobs. Howev
Is there life After TTIP? The future of transatlantic economic relations
The partnership between North America and Europe is becoming unsettled and uncertain. How can we deal with this new situation that threatens the prosp
Brexit, phase two (and beyond): The future of the EU-UK relationship
Whether it looks more like ‘CETA-plus’ or ‘EEA-minus’, the trade deal that emerges from phase two of the Brexit negotiations should not be the limit o
The time is right for a European Monetary Fund
Two of the banking union’s pillars – common European supervision by the European Central Bank and common European resolution by the Single Resolution
Europe's trust deficit
At this event, we discussed the rise of populism in Europe and the economic, security, and identity concerns behind the movement.
EU-China economic relations: looking to 2025
This event will see the launch of a report on EU-China relations and discuss issues such as trade and investment, industrial cooperation and innovatio
Bruegel Annual Meetings 2017, 7-8 September
The Annual Meetings are Bruegel’s flagship event.
Should the EU have the power to vet foreign takeovers?
Should the EU have the power to vet foreign takeovers? André Sapir and Alicia Garcia-Herrero debate the issue, which has become topical in view of rec
Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit
What is the possible future relationship between the EU and the UK in light of Brexit? The report provides a critical assessment of the implications o
We need a European Monetary Fund, but how should it work?
Many voices are calling for the ESM to be developed into a fully-fledged European Monetary Fund. But what changes would this entail, and how could the
International arbitration is the way to settle the UK’s Brexit bill
The UK-EU financial settlement risks becoming a toxic stumbling block in Brexit negotiations. But there are actually much more important issues to dis
Trump’s U-turn on trade with China is good news, but the EU should not be complacent
President Trump has so far been softer on China than his campaign promises predicted. This is welcome. However, the EU has a lot at stake, and should
Conversations on the future of Europe
On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, we held an event of four conversations between Bruegel scholars and Eur
Europe in a new world order
In this paper the authors explore what the EU’s strategic reaction should be to US diminishing giant policies, and the EU’s role in a world of declini
Making the best of Brexit for the EU27 financial system
The EU27 needs to upgrade its financial surveillance architecture to minimise the financial market fragmentation resulting from Brexit
Brexit and trade: what EU and WTO rules imply
Bruegel in collaboration with Leuven Centre For Global Governance Studies organizes an event at which we will discuss the options for redesigning trad
The future of EU trade policy
We are happy to welcome the European Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström to Bruegel on 24 January to talk about the future of the EU's trade poli