André Sapir, a Belgian citizen, is Senior Fellow at Bruegel. He is also University Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and Research Fellow of the London-based Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Between 1990 and 2004, he worked for the European Commission, first as Economic Advisor to the Director-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and then as Principal Economic Advisor to President Prodi, also heading his Economic Advisory Group. In 2004, he published 'An Agenda for a Growing Europe', a report to the president of the Commission by a group of independent experts that is known as the Sapir report. After leaving the Commission, he first served as External Member of President Barroso’s Economic Advisory Group and then as Member of the General Board (and Chair of the Advisory Scientific Committee) of the European Systemic Risk Board based at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt.
André has written extensively on European integration, international trade, and globalisation. He holds a PhD in economics from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, where he worked under the supervision of Béla Balassa. He was elected Member of the Academia Europaea and of the Royal Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts.
Disclaimer of external interests
A collection of articles compiled following a joint Bruegel-Intereconomics event on EU enlargment.
The European Union should take significant economic measures in response to the war in Ukraine, but a new Next Generation EU is not needed yet.
A new EU regulatory action in public procurement could unlock the potential of green public procurement and add an important element to the European G
European Union membership for Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine is at present unrealistic, but they should be offered more than Association Agreements.
To avoid any backlash, the European Union should work with other World Trade Organisation members to define basic principles of carbon border adjustme
In this blog, the authors argue that two aspects of the European resolution framework are particularly in need of reform – the bail-in regime and the
The European Union-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment binds Chinese liberalisation of its foreign investment regulations under an internation
An examination of China’s participation in the World Trade Organization, the conflicts it has caused, and how WTO reforms could ease them.
How can friends of the multilateral system re-engage the United States under President-elect Biden?
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement signed between the European Union and the United Kingdom goes against six decades of UK efforts to avoid being eco
Data flows, artificial intelligence and international trade: impacts and prospects for the value chains of the future
In-depth briefing and analysis on the issues of digital trade and the geopolitics of trade provided to the European Parliament.
Socio-economic effects of digital trade and artificial intelligence on EU industries including their value chains and EU imports and exports with major trade partners
Testimony before the European Parliament on the subject of digital trade.
All European Union countries are undergoing severe output losses as a consequence of COVID-19, but some have been hurt more than others. Factors poten
This briefing was prepared for the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade (INTA).
The European Union has introduced export controls on some medical supplies. This was a mistake. It should announce that it is withdrawing the measure,
'Whatever it takes' needs to be the motto to preserve lives and reduce the impact on the economy of the epidemic.
At the presentation of her team for the next European Commission, President-elect Ursula von der Leyen declared that hers will be a ‘geopolitical Comm
Ursula von der Leyen plans to introduce a border carbon tax to avoid that cutting EU carbon emissions forces EU companies to move their activities abr
Memo to the presidents of the European Commission, Council and Parliament. 'A strategic agenda for the new EU leadership' by Maria Demertzis, André Sa
China’s participation in the WTO has been anything but smooth, as its self-proclaimed socialist market economy system has alienated its trading partne
This Policy Contribution was written for the Informal ECOFIN Meeting, Bucharest, 5 April 2019. The authors look at the EU’s economic agenda, discussin
The 'yellow vest' movement proves that France's political and budgetary centralism, as the source of citizens' feelings of abandonment and revolt, mus
This paper was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on International Trade (INTA) and analyses the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement
The need for reform of the EU is increasingly urgent. The authors of this policy brief suggest a new governance model, combining a bare-bones EU with
This Policy Contribution looks at the evolution of public debt in Belgium and Italy since 1990 and uses the debt dynamics equation to explain the cont
This Policy Contribution analyses the economic consequences of a full-scale trade war. The US position, focusing on bilateral trade imbalances presuma
The UK government finally tabled a serious proposal for the country’s future relationship with the European Union (EU). The White Paper puts the ball
It is high time to make the CMU project real.The authors of this publication suggest that capital markets will only transform with concrete action and
It is only in the last decade that the EU has had an active policy to reintegrate workers who lost their jobs as a result of globalisation, through th
The EU is a relatively open economy and has benefited from the multilateral system. We argue that the EU should defend its strategic interests. The Si
With the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF), the EU now has an instrument to help workers negatively affected by trade find new jobs. Howev
Whether it looks more like ‘CETA-plus’ or ‘EEA-minus’, the trade deal that emerges from phase two of the Brexit negotiations should not be the limit o
Two of the banking union’s pillars – common European supervision by the European Central Bank and common European resolution by the Single Resolution
Should the EU have the power to vet foreign takeovers? André Sapir and Alicia Garcia-Herrero debate the issue, which has become topical in view of rec
Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit
What is the possible future relationship between the EU and the UK in light of Brexit? The report provides a critical assessment of the implications o
Many voices are calling for the ESM to be developed into a fully-fledged European Monetary Fund. But what changes would this entail, and how could the
The UK-EU financial settlement risks becoming a toxic stumbling block in Brexit negotiations. But there are actually much more important issues to dis
President Trump has so far been softer on China than his campaign promises predicted. This is welcome. However, the EU has a lot at stake, and should
In this paper the authors explore what the EU’s strategic reaction should be to US diminishing giant policies, and the EU’s role in a world of declini
The EU27 needs to upgrade its financial surveillance architecture to minimise the financial market fragmentation resulting from Brexit and the corresp
There is still a certain degree of fuzziness about what the different degrees of Brexit entail. We attempt to fill this gap by setting out the options
The proposal for a Continental Partnership (CP) has received a great deal of attention. Two of the authors, André Sapir and Guntram Wolff, clarify som
This paper leaves aside the issue of EU reform and focuses on the desirable EU-UK relationship after Brexit. The authors argue that none of the existi
The UK Government appears divided on whether the United Kingdom should seek to remain within the European Union’s customs union after Brexit. The Unit
Those who argue that Brexit would let the UK “take back sovereignty” overlook the impact of trade on domestic law-making.
Misalignments of real exchange rates continue to be the most visible and painful symptom of asymmetric shocks within the Eurozone. An important factor
So far, having more than one currency in the EU has not undermined the single market. However, attempts to deepen integration in the banking, labour
Committee on International Trade (INTA), European Parliament, 12 November 2015.
In order to calm fears about weak euro area governance: better fiscal governance and a mechanism to ensure competitiveness despite the absence of
Be it sluggish growth performance, high unemployment or an incomplete monetary union, completing the single market is often offered as a silver bullet
This paper argues that identifying and quantifying the channels through which market integration is expected to engender growth is methodological
This Policy Brief argues that the Euro-area governance needs to move beyond the improvements brought about by banking union and should establish
President Juncker has presented the key features of the European Commission’s plan to boost investment in the EU. In this blog post we review the most
Under the leadership of Vice President Katainen, the Commission has designed a plan which will be announced this week. The announcement of the investm
Memos to the new EU leadership.
One early move that Juncker should make is to do away with the current European Commission college structure of one portfolio for each of the 28 membe
This memo is addressed to the incoming Presidents of the European institutions. It is the first in a series of memos to the new European leadership to
Voters across the European Union have given a loud signal in the European elections that they are unhappy with their economic and social situatio
This report analyses economic issues facing Japan and Europe. It identifies some of the channels through which Europe can learn from Japan, and viceve
Reinhard Quick – Director Brussels Office of the German Chemical Industry Association, as well as a well-known trade specialist in Brussels and H
Countries can make a clean exit from financial assistance, or enter a new programme or a precautionary programme, depending on the sustainability of t
This study was presented to the ECON committee of the European Parliament.It provides a systematic evaluation of financial assistance for Greece, Irel
A more balanced economic strategy in the two countries is crucial to help the peripheral countries solve their own predicaments and ensure the sustain
This Policy Brief highlights some weaknesses in the standard argumentation for BCAs. But there is an alternative argument for border carbon measures,
Europe's policies should focus on the high-end industries that are driving Europe's productivity growth.
Bruegel-Forscher André Sapir und Guntram B. Wolff über die Reform des Bankensektors
‘Manufacturing Europe’s future’ means getting the policies right for firms to grow and prosper. It is not about picking one sector over another, but p
With the upcoming Asset Quality Review (AQR) by the European Central Bank, Europe has a chance to fundamentally reshape its financial system to make i
Policy contribution presented at the informal ECOFIN in Vilnius on September 14, discussing how Europe's financial system could and should be res
European leaders are rightly concerned about the record level of youth unemployment in the EU. Unfortunately simply targeting measures at young people
For two decades the Japanese economy has been mired in deflation and stagnant nominal GDP. Real GDP and per capita GDP have grown a bit but only thank
The decision to launch negotiations on a bilateral free trade area between the EU and the US, called the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnershi
This study provides an early evaluation of the assistance programmes implemented by the Troika in Greece, Ireland and Portugal. The study assesses the
The Great Depression was a period of severe economic contraction that lasted many years. In the United States real GDP fell every year from 1929 to 19
The 2012 Autumn Economic Forecast of the European Commission confirms the Spring Forecast expectation that several euro area countries, including Fran
The strengthening of the European Union’s fiscal rules with the approval of the so-called ‘six-pack’, and the parallel worsening of economic condition
Following the various announcements of President Draghi in July and August, most analysts were expecting further clarification of the modalities of th
The size of the deficit reduction mandated by European fiscal rules for euro area countries currently under excessive deficit procedure will be on ave
This policy contribution discusses in detail how a future banking union could be organised by examining seven fundamental choices that decision makers
The euro crisis and subsequent policy responses have challenged the assumptions underpinning the euro-area's governance, and the relationship bet