A dataset on EU legislation for the digital world

Publishing date
20 July 2023

This Bruegel dataset seeks to provide a comprehensive view of:

  • legislative measures relevant to digitalisation enacted during the 2009-2014 and 2014-2019 European Parliament terms, or which were enacted or are expected during the current legislative session (2019-2024); and
  • governmental and non-governmental bodies at EU level that contribute to the implementation and enforcement of legislative measures related to digitalisation.

To download the tables described in the memo below, please use the download button in the top-left of the page. In case of comments or requests, please contact us at [email protected].

A barrage of legislative instruments

A dizzying array of digital laws have been enacted, mostly under the Digital Agenda and the Digital Single Market (DSM) programmes. Other measures have been enacted or are likely to be enacted during the current legislative term.

In the current term, a Digital Markets Act (DMA), a Digital Services Act (DSA), a Data Act, an Artificial Intelligence Act (AI Act), a Data Governance Act (DGA), the European Health Data Space (EHDS), an update to the regulation on electronic identification and trust services (eIDAS 2) and a measure to strengthen the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure (NIS2) have all either been enacted or are in the legislative process.

The authors believe that the research community is eager for tools to help them make sense of this stream of legislative measures.

In the 2014-2019 legislative term, the European Parliament’s Policy Department called for studies to assess the overall results of the legislative term. De Streel and Hocepied (2019) on legal characteristics of the Digital Single Market (DSM) provided a workable taxonomy, which Marcus et al (2019) used as a basis for assessing the economic results of the same measures. An update to this work covering measures in the 2019-2024 legislative terms can be found here.

Sources, limitations, and disclaimers

Although the authors have worked to ensure that the information provided is accurate, we make no guarantees due to the nature of the legislative process.

Much of the information in our tables is based on standard, publicly available sources. This is especially the case for legislative measures that have already been enacted. When we provide information about planned initiatives, the information is often based on official pronouncements of the European institutions, such as European Commission work programmes or State of the European Union addresses. Our assessment of planned initiatives also reflects first-hand knowledge, information from colleagues and other sources.

In case of comments or requests, please contact us at [email protected].

Understanding the tables in this dataset

Table 1 provides an overview of legislative measures enacted, or which are likely to be enacted during the current legislative session, roughly following the taxonomy of de Streel and Hocepied (2019). We classify the measures depending on whether they primarily relate to (1) research and innovation; (2) industrial policy; (3) connectivity; (4) data and privacy; (5) cybersecurity; (6) law enforcement; (7) trust and safety; (8) e-commerce and consumer protection; (9) competition, IPR and media; and (10) finance. We distinguish among (a) measures that have been enacted, versus (b) those that are in the legislative process, versus (c) initiatives that have been announced, but that are not yet formally in the legislative process.

To find the detailed text of legislation that has been enacted or negotiated, please follow the links in the dataset.

Table 2 provides a list and taxonomy of the number of governmental and non-governmental bodies that in one way or another contribute to the implementation and enforcement of EU legislative measures that relate to digitalisation. Only EU bodies that have a role in implementing EU law relevant to digital services are included. Member state implementation bodies are not shown, nor are any expert groups that serve solely to provide the European Commission with high-level input and advice with the drafting of delegated or implementing acts. The thematic taxonomy is the same as that of Table 1. In Table 2, we distinguish between (1) EU institutions, (2) Executive agencies, (3) Decentralised agencies, (4) Governing boards, (5) Independent bodies, (6) Advisory bodies, (7) Networks of Member States, and (8) European standardisation organisations (ESOs).

Marcus, J. S., G. Petropoulos, and T. Yeung (2019) ‘Contribution to growth. The European Digital Single Market. Delivering economic benefits for citizens and businesses’, available at [accessed 18 July 2023]

de Streel, A. and C. Hocepied (2019) ‘Contributing to Growth: European Digital Single - Market Delivering improved rights for citizens and businesses’, available at [accessed 18 July 2023]

About the authors

  • Kai Zenner

    Kai Zenner is Head of Office and Digital Policy Adviser for MEP Axel Voss (European People’s Party Group) in the European Parliament. Describing himself as a digital enthusiast, he focuses on AI, data and the EU’s digital transition. Currently, he is involved in the political negotiations on the AI Act, AI liability directive, eprivacy Regulation and GDPR revision. In his individual capacity, he is pushing for reforms within the European Parliament and for bringing back the Better Regulation agenda to EU policymaking.

    Mr Zenner graduated in political science (M.Sc. at University of Edinburgh, B.A. at University of Bremen) and in law (State Exam at University of Münster). Before moving to the European Parliament, he worked as research associate at the European office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Brussels.

    He is member of the OECD.AI Network of Experts since 2021, was awarded best MEP Assistant in 2023 ("APA who has gone above and beyond in his duties") and ranked Place #13 in Politico's Power 40 - class 2023 ("top influencers who are most effectively setting the agenda in politics, public policy and advocacy in Brussels").

  • J. Scott Marcus

    J. Scott Marcus is a Senior Fellow at Bruegel, a Brussels-based economics think tank, and also works as an independent consultant dealing with policy and regulatory policy regarding electronic communications. His work is interdisciplinary and entails economics, political science / public administration, policy analysis, and engineering.

    From 2005 to 2015, he served as a Director for WIK-Consult GmbH (the consulting arm of the WIK, a German research institute in regulatory economics for network industries). From 2001 to 2005, he served as Senior Advisor for Internet Technology for the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC), as a peer to the Chief Economist and Chief Technologist. In 2004, the FCC seconded Mr. Marcus to the European Commission (to what was then DG INFSO) under a grant from the German Marshall Fund of the United States. Prior to working for the FCC, he was the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of Genuity, Inc. (GTE Internetworking), one of the world's largest backbone internet service providers.

    Mr. Marcus is a member of the Scientific Committee of the Communications and Media program at the Florence School of Regulation (FSR), a unit of the European University Institute (EUI). He is also a Fellow of GLOCOM (the Center for Global Communications, a research institute of the International University of Japan). He is a Senior Member of the IEEE; has served as co-editor for public policy and regulation for IEEE Communications Magazine; served on the Meetings and Conference Board of the IEEE Communications Society from 2001 through 2005; and was Vice Chair and then Acting Chair of IEEE CNOM. He served on the board of the American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN) from 2000 to 2002.

    Marcus is the author of numerous papers, a book on data network design. He either led or served as first author for numerous studies for the European Parliament, the European Commission, and national governments and regulatory authorities around the world.

    Marcus holds a B.A. in Political Science (Public Administration) from the City College of New York (CCNY), and an M.S. from the School of Engineering, Columbia University.

  • Kamil Sekut

    Kamil works at Bruegel as a Research assistant. He studied Economics (BSc) at University of Warsaw with a semester exchange at Utrecht University. He pursued MSc in Economics at KU Leuven, where he specialized in labour issues, development economics and applied econometrics.

    Before coming to Bruegel, Kamil worked as a Research assistant at the Group for Research in Applied Economics, a non-governmental research centre based in Warsaw where he worked on several projects in labour economics.  He also finished a summer internship at the Polish Ministry of Finance, where he analysed differences in wage trajectories of parents after childbirth. 

    His MSc thesis defended at KU Leuven investigated the impact of occupational skill mismatch on job satisfaction and mental health of workers. 

    Kamil is also interested in long-term growth, political economy, and innovation policy.  He speaks English fluently and is a native speaker of Polish. 

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