How did Europe respond to the pandemic?
Study for the German Federal Foreign Office produced by Bruegel, the Kiel Institute for the World Economy and DIW Berlin.
Testimony before the Economic Affairs Committee of the French Senate.
The Next Generation EU programme is radically changing the way the EU finances itself and interacts with financial markets. This paper assesses the first design decisions made by the European Commission and the issuances that have taken place so far. It also outlines the potential risks and opportunities linked to this upgrading of the EU borrowing.
How can European countries phase out the COVID-19 support measures without having a negative impact on productivity and financial stability?
While support schemes during the pandemic were not targeted at protecting ‘good’ firms, financial support mostly went to those with the capacity to survive and succeed. Labour schemes have been effective in protecting employment.
By and large, setting a new green golden rule would be a useful addition to the existing EU fiscal framework.
All of this talk on strategic retrenchment and autonomy is the language of escalation, not of appeasement and collaboration.
Agreement is needed at international level on mechanisms to ensure better preparedness for the next pandemic.
How can the European Union increase green public investment while consolidating budget deficits?
The pandemic has shown workers and employers that another way to work is possible. The European Union should develop a framework to facilitate hybrid work.
In-depth analysis prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on International Trade (INTA).