By acting together, the European Union can optimise its response to the energy crisis in all scenarios but each country will have to make concessions.
The EU lacks the coordination structure and transparent data necessary to most effectively navigate an embargo on Russian oil.
[This event is cancelled until further notice] How could shifting the tax burden from labour to pollution and resources help the EU reach its climate goals?
The Bruegel annual report provides a broad overview of the organisation's work in the previous year.
A review on green growth and degrowth arguments.
The European Union should apply a tariff on imports of Russian oil; it can be accompanied by a quota for a gradual, conditional phase-out of all Russian oil imports.
The 2 May meeting of EU energy ministers should deliver strong and common EU action. Failing to do so would undermine Europe’s unity, energy security and foreign policy.
As energy security risks increase, European governments must stop subsidising oil and gas, and ask people to consume less.
The most efficient way for Europe to sanction Russian energy would not be an embargo, but the introduction of an import tariff that can be used flexibly to control the degree of economic pressure on Russia.
A new EU regulatory action in public procurement could unlock the potential of green public procurement and add an important element to the European Green Deal toolbox.
To keep European Union capital markets open and integrated, new international standards should be reflected in future European law and accounting practice to provide further incentives for a reallocation of capital, reflecting in particular climate risks.
Three ways Europe could limit Russian oil and gas revenues.