Policymakers must act to prevent lasting divergence within the EU and to prevent scarring from the fallout from the pandemic.
Plans for spending European Union recovery funds submitted by the four largest EU countries reflect rather different priorities. So far, only Italy is interested in borrowing from the EU.
This report explores the distribution of household wealth in the EU Member States and analyses the role of wealth in social mobility.
Less-educated workers have suffered most from job losses in the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is quite likely there was a significant increase in European Union income inequality in 2020.
Joint EU borrowing to boost the recovery, if not treated as national deficit and debt, will substantially ease rules-based fiscal adjustment needs in southern and eastern Europe, but not in western and northern Europe.
A new approach, which estimates 'unexplained economic growth', provides insights into the types of European Union cohesion projects that produce better economic results for regions.
Estimates of payments countries will receive from the Next Generation EU instrument can be made with some degree of precision. But estimating countries' repayments up to 2058 is extremely difficult.
The 2020 pandemic economic shock has led to reassessment of fiscal policy measures in 2018 and earlier, because of faulty measurement of unobserved output gaps and structural balances. The current period of suspension of EU fiscal rules should be used to design a better fiscal framework.