This paper assesses COVID-19 credit-support programmes in five of the largest European economies, and examines how countries have dealt with trade-offs raised by the programmes.
The European Union’s proposed Digital Markets Act will attempt to control online gatekeepers by subjecting them to a wider range of upfront constraints.
A new plan to tackle foreign subsidies would empower the European Commission to investigate foreign investments in the European Union, with Chinese investment particularly in the spotlight. This increased scrutiny could deter some investors. Overall however, fairer competition is worth some lost opportunities.
This briefing paper focuses on two aspects of the EU fiscal framework: whether an expenditure rule would be more reliable than a structural budget balance rule and the possible benefits and drawbacks of introducing a golden rule to exclude certain types of investment from the operational fiscal rule.
L'adoption des technologies IA repose moins sur des scientifiques de haut niveau que sur des spécialistes des données et des programmeurs compétents qui peuvent mettre en pratique les algorithmes d'apprentissage profond existants à des fins commerciales.
In March and April 2020, European governments announced massive credit support programmes. After an initial surge, take-up appears to be stabilising (with a lag in Italy), despite second wave shocks in some countries. More recent data confirms that fiscal capacity has not visibly constrained national governments in the support they have provided so far.
How severe is Europe’s dearth of AI talent and how does it compare to the United States, China and the United Kingdom – the world’s AI champions?
Loan guarantees have been a major part of the COVID-19 support packages offered by European governments to companies. The actual take-up numbers so far follow very different patterns from the headline announcements, and might allay early concerns about single market distortions caused by the different sizes of packages in different countries.
Four guiding principles can help ensure a well designed EU equity fund.
COVID-19 has triggered a severe recession and policymakers in European Union countries are providing generous, largely indiscriminate, support to companies. As the recession gets deeper, a more comprehensive strategy is needed. This should be based on four principles: viability of supported entities, fairness, achieving societal goals, and giving society a share in future profits. The effort should be structured around equity and recovery funds with borrowing at EU level.
Self-employed workers are hardest-hit by COVID-19 lockdowns. Yet they often receive less government support than salaried employees. Is the disparity justified?