What are the vulnerabilities and risks in the enterprise sector and how prepared are countries to handle a large-scale restructuring of businesses?
Even at this late hour, the European Union should consider taking a different path.
A review on green growth and degrowth arguments.
A tariff on imports of Russian fossil fuels would allow Europe to hit Russia's energy sector without great suffering.
Letter published in Science.
A punitive tariff on all energy imports from Russia would be a better choice than a gradually phased-in embargo on selected fuels.
The most efficient way for Europe to sanction Russian energy would not be an embargo, but the introduction of an import tariff that can be used flexibly to control the degree of economic pressure on Russia.
Article published in the Journal of Economic Policy Reform.
Three ways Europe could limit Russian oil and gas revenues.
The EU and the West need to acknowledge and accept the fact that European liberal democracy is being defended in Ukraine – a clearer message to Putin is needed. A slow and gradual phasing out of Russian fossil fuel is neither ethically acceptable nor politically and economically smart.