Global economy and trade
Explore recurring issues in Europe’s relationship with its extended neighbourhood, and economic relations with China, India and the rest of the world.
The global economy in continues to be affected by the pandemic. However, it is also marked by major geopolitical developments, from President Biden’s inauguration and a revival of the transatlantic relationship, to the continued rivalry with China, with the EU caught in-between these global trends.
Bruegel’s scholars cover the European Union’s increasing assertiveness towards neighbours over the past year, including the external repercussions of the European Green Deal, managing a crisis at its borders, building a future relationship with a former member, strengthening the international role of the euro and tackling a resurgent China.
Recently published and updated
The Belt and Road Initiative 2.0 is all about security
How the Belt and Road Initiative has transformed into a geopolitical tool for China.
Is Europe failing on import diversification?
Despite a goal of economic self-reliance, the European Union’s imports are generally sourced from an increasingly limited set of suppliers.
What China’s reopening will mean for the global economy
A timely discussion about the reopening of China after the zero-Covid policy and its implications on the global economy
How should Europe react to the Inflation Reduction Act?
A deep dive into the IRA and its expected impact on the world trade system.
Climate versus trade? Reconciling international subsidy rules with industrial decarbonisation
Environmental subsidies could be justified when emissions taxation is not feasible or is insufficient due to political economy constraints.
Is deglobalisation already happening?
Is the world witnessing a shift away from Hyper-globalisation to Deglobalisation?
The boom, bust and future of China's real estate sector
Is China’s real estate market sustainable?
Global and regional Gini coefficients
28 April 2022
Cutting Putin’s energy rent: ‘smart sanctioning’ Russian oil and gas
Infrastructure bottlenecks prevent Russia from selling all the oil it wants to bring to market, even at lower prices.
26 April 2022
Owning up to sustainability risks: the EU should champion international standards
To keep European Union capital markets open and integrated, new international standards should be reflected in future European law.
25 April 2022
The low productivity of European firms: how can policies enhance the allocation of resources?
Economists take total factor productivity (TFP) as one of the most informative indicators of the state of a country's economy.
25 April 2022
Climate migration: what do we really know?
While uncertain, studies suggest that climate change will cause significant internal and international migration over the next century.
19 April 2022
A sanctions counter measure: gas payments to Russia in rubles
A requirement for gas to be paid for in rubles is a way for Russia to side-step central bank sanctions.
15 April 2022
The European Union should sanction Sberbank and other Russian banks
EU should extend harsh sanctions to most or all of the largest Russian banks, including the largest that plays a central role in its financial system.
13 April 2022
Knowledge flows and global value chains
We explore the implications of a range of novel approaches to GVCs for our understanding of how they affect knowledge flow and innovation.
12 April 2022
The decoupling of Russia: European vulnerabilities in the high-tech sector
The EU will face challenges in sectors where it relies on Russian and Ukrainian commodities and technologies.
11 April 2022
Measuring the intangible economy to address policy challenges
The purpose of the first work package of the MICROPROD project was to improve the firm-level data infrastructure, expand the measurement of intangible
08 April 2022
The European Union demand response to high natural gas prices
Even before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, high natural gas prices triggered an estimated European Union demand cut of about 7%.
08 April 2022
Putin’s Russia is a minnow compared to the Cold War Soviet Bloc
For the time being at least, based on the non-military metrics considered here, Moscow’s global heft is a shadow of its former Soviet self.
06 April 2022
Bold European Union action is needed to support Ukrainian refugees
Hosting Ukrainian refugees could cost European Union countries in excess of €40 billion this year. A dedicated EU fund is needed to manage the burden.
05 April 2022
Is the private sector retreating in China? Not among its largest companies
China’s largest private-sector companies are expanding more quickly than state-owned enterprises (SOEs).
05 April 2022
The private sector advances in China: The evolving ownership structures of the largest companies in the Xi Jinping era
This paper documents recent structural changes in China’s corporate landscape, based on company level data.
28 March 2022
The decoupling of Russia: high-tech goods and components
Sanctions on high-tech goods supplies, combined with financial sanctions and other restrictions, will deprive Russia of a future as a modern economy.
24 March 2022
Better pensions for the European Union’s self-employed
What is the current state of pensions policy in Europe and how are independent workers treated compared with their traditionally employed counterparts