Global economy and trade
Explore recurring issues in Europe’s relationship with its extended neighbourhood, and economic relations with China, India and the rest of the world.
The global economy in continues to be affected by the pandemic. However, it is also marked by major geopolitical developments, from President Biden’s inauguration and a revival of the transatlantic relationship, to the continued rivalry with China, with the EU caught in-between these global trends.
Bruegel’s scholars cover the European Union’s increasing assertiveness towards neighbours over the past year, including the external repercussions of the European Green Deal, managing a crisis at its borders, building a future relationship with a former member, strengthening the international role of the euro and tackling a resurgent China.
Recently published and updated
The Belt and Road Initiative 2.0 is all about security
How the Belt and Road Initiative has transformed into a geopolitical tool for China.
Is Europe failing on import diversification?
Despite a goal of economic self-reliance, the European Union’s imports are generally sourced from an increasingly limited set of suppliers.
What China’s reopening will mean for the global economy
A timely discussion about the reopening of China after the zero-Covid policy and its implications on the global economy
How should Europe react to the Inflation Reduction Act?
A deep dive into the IRA and its expected impact on the world trade system.
Climate versus trade? Reconciling international subsidy rules with industrial decarbonisation
Environmental subsidies could be justified when emissions taxation is not feasible or is insufficient due to political economy constraints.
Is deglobalisation already happening?
Is the world witnessing a shift away from Hyper-globalisation to Deglobalisation?
The boom, bust and future of China's real estate sector
Is China’s real estate market sustainable?
Global and regional Gini coefficients
07 December 2022
The ‘anywhere’ jobs are not everywhere – they’re in cities
Given new remote working arrangements, online gigs can be completed in the lowest-cost locations; they’re mainly done by workers in large cities.
07 December 2022
Will the European Union price cap on Russian oil work?
The G7 Russian oil price cap is an ambitious but untested instrument. While pitfalls exist, the cap has the potential to be the most potent sanction.
06 December 2022
You’ll never talk alone: what media narratives on European reforms reveal about a polity in the making
In this paper, we have analysed the coverage of reforms in a European context in the leading business newspapers in the three biggest EU member states
02 December 2022
How to implement the self-preferencing ban in the European Union’s Digital Markets Act
The European Union Digital Markets Act (DMA) bans large online platforms under its scope from treating their own products more favourably than rivals.
30 November 2022
The European Commission's fiscal rules proposal: a bold plan with flaws that can be fixed
The European Commission’s proposal for reforming the EU fiscal rules is far-reaching, but its shortcomings need to be addressed.
28 November 2022
Does inflation hit the poor hardest everywhere?
Low-income households suffer most from high inflation, but in some European Union countries the inflation burden is felt more equally than others.
23 November 2022
Promotion of high capacity broadband to rebuild and recover from the pandemic
High-capacity broadband infrastructure will be a key enabler of a forward-looking recovery after COVID-19.
22 November 2022
To cap or not to cap: the deal Europe needs on energy prices
An EU gas price cap would be counterproductive, but the reasons why it is supported widely must be acknowledged and addressed.
22 November 2022
Completing Europe’s banking union: economic requirements and legal conditions
This contribution analyses the deficiencies of the current framework and identifies possible responses, in line with three levels of reform ambition.
18 November 2022
Lessons for Europe from China’s quest for semiconductor self-reliance
This paper explores China's quest to become a domestic-demand-driven economy, and the lessons that can be learnt from its quest for self reliance.
17 November 2022
Deglobalisation and Protectionism
This paper presents a data-driven examination of whether deglobalisation has happened and whether protectionism was the cause.
10 November 2022
With a little help from some friends: coordinating Digital Markets Act enforcement
Digital Markets Act enforcement will be much more effective if EU member national authorities are involved
09 November 2022
Success at COP27 will be defined by progress on climate finance and ‘loss and damage’
COP27 should create the basis of a global loss-and-damage fund to help vulnerable countries already suffering from climate disasters.
08 November 2022
Beyond the training gap: learning foundational skills on the job
Low-skilled workers tend to have jobs that are less likely to foster foundational skills. This worsens skills gaps and income inequality.
03 November 2022
Is globalisation really doomed?
Globalisation is under attack; to preserve its benefits, healthy domestic social contracts are essential.
27 October 2022
European Union fiscal rules: is a better system feasible?
EU countries seem to be converging on a set of reform objectives. But can these be jointly satisfied? Two recent proposals offer some hope.