The concept of competitive neutrality can be used to assess how far a market is from being a competitive environment. In China, competitive neutrality is lacking, with state-owned firms favoured in most sectors, even over Chinese private firms.
COVID-19 has caused a resurgence of the role of the state. State ownership can help reduce effects from shocks to the economy but state-owned firms often suffer from weak governance and lack of innovation. What role should state owned firms and banks play and how can their management be improved?
How can we ensure fair competition between European firms and Chinese state-backed players?
The distortive effects that foreign state-owned or state-supported companies can have on European markets and on the European Union’s economic autonomy are starting to worry policymakers
When considering China’s renewed state capitalism, we should be mindful of the damage done by the 2008 financial crisis to the world's perception of Western capitalism.
In its bid to join the single currency Bulgaria has made commitments on financial supervision but also wider structural reform which set a precedent for future applicants for participation in the exchange rate mechanism ERMII. Most conditions, though not all, are justified by the additional demands of the banking union. But the envisaged timeline seems ambitious, and verification will not be straightforward.