External publication

The evolution of European economic institutions during the COVID-19 crisis

This article discusses how the European institutions reacted and evolved during the early stages of the COVID-19 crisis in the first half of 2020.

Publishing date
19 November 2020

This article was originally published on the European Policy Analysis Journal.


This article argues that the incomplete economic and institutional integration of the euro area has exposed the monetary union to increasing economic divergence, which could be deepened by the COVID-19 crisis. We discuss how monetary and fiscal measures implemented at the onset of the pandemic have contributed to mitigate the economic consequences of lockdowns, but provided limited insurance to narrow economic gaps across member countries. However, EU countries agreed on July 21, 2020 to develop, for the first time, countercyclical fiscal transfers financed by common debt issuance. We discuss the potential of this instrument to contribute to improve the resilience of the eurozone.

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