The European Union and other major economies have imposed swift, broad and devastating sanctions in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. But given Europe’s energy dependence on Russian natural gas, there is a growing fear across the continent that Russia could hit back. Bruegel’s Guntram Wolff and Simone Tagliapietra discuss how Europe can withstand Russia’s counter sanctions and keep in unity.
Poitiers, N., G., Tagliapietra, S., Wolff, G. and G. Zachmann (2022) 'The Kremlin’s gas wars', Bruegel External publication, 28 February
McWilliams, B., Sgaravatti, G., Tagliapietra, S. and G. Zachmann (2022) ‘Can Europe survive painlessly without Russian gas?’, Bruegel Blog, 27 January