Steven Fries is the Chief Economist for Royal Dutch Shell, a role he previously held from 2006 to 2011. Prior to re-joining Shell in 2016, he was the Director of Analysis and Chief Economist for the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. He also held a series of senior positions at the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, including Deputy Chief Economist and Director of Research. He began his career as an economist at the International Monetary Fund. He holds a DPhil in economics from the University of Oxford and an undergraduate degree in economics and finance from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School.