Dr. Christophe Carugati is an affiliate fellow at Bruegel on digital and competition issues.
He holds a Doctor in Law and Economics on Big Data and Competition Law from Paris II University, a Master in Law Economics from the European Master in Law and Economics (EMLE, University of Bologna, Hamburg, and Vienna), a master in Business Law from Aix-Marseille University, and a double Bachelor in Law and Economics from Toulouse School of Economics (TSE). His academic research focuses on the adaption of competition law to the data-driven economy and the regulation of platforms.
He teaches a competition law seminar at Lille University to master students. Before joining Bruegel, he was a senior policy analyst at the US technology think-tank The Center for Data Innovation, where he worked on digital issues. He also has some experience in practicing competition law in the context of internships in law firms in Paris.
Disclaimer of external interests
This paper proposes an original set of five compliance principles derived from the DMA list of obligations.
Users expect online services to be free but some digital firms are now offering pay-or-consent options, affecting competition dynamics.
Legislators and regulators should adopt flexible principles to promote technological innovations while minimising risks.
Compliance with the DMA will be about ensuring that users are empowered with rights to challenge gatekeepers
The European Union should reaffirm the principle that undue interference in competition enforcement is protectionism that has negative effects.
Critics argue that her US citizenship and previous work for US tech giants might undermine Brussels’s efforts to tackle big-tech market power.
This working paper examines how competition in foundation models (FMs) works.
This paper outlines some early antitrust issues related to answer engines and the response competition authorities should adopt.
Competition in generative artificial intelligence spurs disruptive, potentially beneficial innovations, but not without costs and risks.
The European Union’s Digital Markets Act gives regulatory authorities another chance to tackle the difficult issue of user consent for data processing
Germany is leading the race to tame big tech. But does the EU need an antitrust enforcement competitor?
Microsoft and Google’s move towards answer engines requires competition authorities to preserve dynamic competition.
The participative approach aims to involve regulated firms, stakeholders and regulators in the design of compliance measures
The European Commission should be more precise and transparent when designating gatekeepers under the European Union’s Digital Markets Act.
While several countries propose regulations to address digital competition issues, how can they ensure mutual enforcement cooperation?
International cooperation on digital markets must ensure competition cases and laws around the world are consistent.
This paper assesses which firms are likely to be gatekeepers under the Digital Markets Act.
The European Union Digital Markets Act (DMA) bans large online platforms under its scope from treating their own products more favourably than rivals.
Big tech companies have been left exposed because they overestimated the growth of online activities during the pandemic, writes Christophe Carugati.
Digital Markets Act enforcement will be much more effective if EU member national authorities are involved
The European Union’s new Digital Markets Act will enable the European Commission to get ahead of potential anti-competitive behaviour.
A practical arrangement based on case information, case allocation and case resolution would ensure consistency and effective enforcement.
The European Commission will enforce digital competition rules against big tech; internally, it should ensure a dedicated process and teams.
While the Digital Markets Act entered its first trilogue, what will be the enforcement role of the Commission and the Member States?