EU3D- Differentiation, Dominance and Democracy

Develop a theory of differentiation in the EU that is institutionally sustainable and democratically legitimate

Timeline: 02/2019- 01/2023 > Then Extended to July 2023

Recent developments have exposed the EU’s vulnerability to volatile markets, geopolitical changes, and domestic opposition. EU3D’s main objective is to develop and apply to the EU and beyond a theory of differentiation that specifies the conditions under which differentiation is politically acceptable, institutionally sustainable and democratically legitimate, and singles out those forms of differentiation that engender dominance.

Bruegel was co-leading the area of “Policy and polity recommendations”, including through the organization of three policy dialogues, and was involved in the Dissemination and communication of the project through the organization of events and the Youth Essay competition about the future of Europe. Moreover, Bruegel was involved in the publications of different working papers, notably the paper on media narratives about EU integration.  

  • University of Oslo, ARENA Centre for European Studies, Norway (Coordinator) 
  • Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia 
  • Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy, Greece 
  • Jagiellonian University Krakow, Poland  
  • LUISS Guido Carli, School of Government, Italy 
  • Sciences Po Grenoble (CNRS), France  
  • University of Copenhagen, Denmark 
  • University of Konstanz, Germany 
  •  University of Oxford, UK 

Bruegel team

The project “EU Differentiation, Dominance and Democracy” (EU3D) has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation action under grant agreement number 822419.

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