Download publication

Policy Contribution

China’s state-owned enterprises and competitive neutrality

The concept of competitive neutrality can be used to assess how far a market is from being a competitive environment. In China, competitive neutrality is lacking, with state-owned firms favoured in most sectors, even over Chinese private firms.

By: and Date: February 23, 2021 Topic: Global Economics & Governance

As China’s economic weight continues to grow, so does the global impact of its companies. Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) produce a large share of Chinese goods and services. Given their importance both in China and increasingly globally, it should be measured whether SOEs introduce distortions into markets and how significant those distortions are. Foreign governments negotiating trade or investment deals with China need this information so they can better measure how far China is from offering a level playing field to foreign companies on its domestic market. In this context, competitive neutrality is an important working concept that can be used to asses how far a market is from being a competitive environment.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a framework of competitive neutrality as one in which public and private companies face the same set of rules, and no contact with the state gives competitive advantage to any market participant. Quantifying the concept is difficult, but we provide a preliminary measure of the lack of competitive neutrality in relation to Chinese SOEs. In particular, we focus on debt and tax neutrality and compare the situation for Chinese state-owned and private firms on aggregate and sectoral levels. Our results support the view that China’s competitive environment is generally poor. The advantageous position of SOEs in China is true for most economic sectors, though to a variable extent, with the automotive sector one of the furthest away from competitive neutrality.

A working measure of competitive neutrality applied in China could help improve the level playing field for foreign companies in China. It could also be applied globally given the very large size and global footprint of Chinese SOEs. The concept could even be introduced in a potential reform of the World Trade Organisation.

Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

Europe's crusade to fend off Chinese interference falls short

It is in everybody's interest for China to level the playing field among state-owned, private, and foreign companies so that no new distortionary measures need to be taken elsewhere.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: May 10, 2021
Read about event More on this topic
 

Upcoming Event

May
11
14:00

Global value chain reshuffling: From tight coupling to loose coupling?

As the focus shifts from efficiency to resilience in global supply chains, what does this mean for China?

Speakers: Erik Berglöf, Alicia García-Herrero and Kristy Tsun-Tzu Hsu Topic: Global Economics & Governance Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read article More on this topic
 

Blog Post

China’s M&A activity rebounds with a clear focus on Europe

Despite the pandemic, China’s interest in overseas M&A started to rebound in late 2020, with European industrial companies still of particular interest.

By: Alicia García-Herrero and Jianwei Xu Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: May 4, 2021
Read about event More on this topic
 

Past Event

Past Event

Form a climate club: United States, European Union and China

Can the three biggest economies agree a carbon tax on imports to catalyse climate action globally?

Speakers: Simone Tagliapietra, Sheldon Whitehouse and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: May 3, 2021
Read article More on this topic
 

Blog Post

China has a grand carbon neutrality target but where is the plan?

China’s new long-term targets, to reach peak emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, are yet to be matched with a consistent short-term action plan.

By: Alicia García-Herrero and Simone Tagliapietra Topic: Energy & Climate Date: April 14, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

[ZhōngHuá Mundus] A digital yuan?

China is moving towards a digital currency but there is a long way to go.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: April 14, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

The EU-China investment deal may be anachronic in a bifurcating world

Ultimately, only time will tell if this landmark trade agreement will be productive and counter the potential bifurcation of international value chains.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: April 6, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

Anchoring expectations as Two Sessions’ main objective

Interestingly, the growth target for 2021 is pretty humble: over 6 percent for 2021, while most forecasts hover between 7 and 10 percent.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: March 10, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

[ZhōngHuá Mundus] Will China fall into the middle/high income trap?

The middle to high-income trap in East Asia and its China dilemma.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: March 3, 2021
Read article Download PDF More on this topic
 

External Publication

China and the WTO: Why Multilateralism Still Matters

An examination of China’s participation in the World Trade Organization, the conflicts it has caused, and how WTO reforms could ease them.

By: Petros C. Mavroidis and André Sapir Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: January 28, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

A rushed deal or a rush to judgement?

The Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI) is supposed to improve market access for European companies operating in China and to ensure a level playing field, as well as reciprocity. Does it fulfil such expectations?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: January 27, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

An EU - China investment deal: a second look

For the moment, it does not look like we have the basis for greater and deeper economic relations with China. However, dismissing China and the opportunities that it creates for global cooperation would also be a mistake.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Global Economics & Governance Date: January 19, 2021
Load more posts