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Policy Contribution

China’s state-owned enterprises and competitive neutrality

The concept of competitive neutrality can be used to assess how far a market is from being a competitive environment. In China, competitive neutrality is lacking, with state-owned firms favoured in most sectors, even over Chinese private firms.

By: and Date: February 23, 2021 Topic: Global economy and trade

As China’s economic weight continues to grow, so does the global impact of its companies. Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) produce a large share of Chinese goods and services. Given their importance both in China and increasingly globally, it should be measured whether SOEs introduce distortions into markets and how significant those distortions are. Foreign governments negotiating trade or investment deals with China need this information so they can better measure how far China is from offering a level playing field to foreign companies on its domestic market. In this context, competitive neutrality is an important working concept that can be used to asses how far a market is from being a competitive environment.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a framework of competitive neutrality as one in which public and private companies face the same set of rules, and no contact with the state gives competitive advantage to any market participant. Quantifying the concept is difficult, but we provide a preliminary measure of the lack of competitive neutrality in relation to Chinese SOEs. In particular, we focus on debt and tax neutrality and compare the situation for Chinese state-owned and private firms on aggregate and sectoral levels. Our results support the view that China’s competitive environment is generally poor. The advantageous position of SOEs in China is true for most economic sectors, though to a variable extent, with the automotive sector one of the furthest away from competitive neutrality.

A working measure of competitive neutrality applied in China could help improve the level playing field for foreign companies in China. It could also be applied globally given the very large size and global footprint of Chinese SOEs. The concept could even be introduced in a potential reform of the World Trade Organisation.

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Parliamentary Testimony

United States Senate

China's non-market practices, impact on the world, and what to do about it?

Testimony before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade, Testimonies, United States Senate Date: June 27, 2022
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Podcast

Podcast

Understanding Sri Lanka's current crisis

What needs to be done to address the Sri Lankan crisis and how does it relate to China?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: June 23, 2022
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Blog Post

A new kind of Belt and Road Initiative after the pandemic

The Belt and Road Initiative is turning from infrastructure financing into an instrument for Chinese soft and hard power

By: Alicia García-Herrero and Eyck Freymann Topic: Global economy and trade Date: June 23, 2022
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Podcast

Podcast

Is China bailing Russia out?

The mystery of China-Russia economic relations in the aftermath of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and what it means for Europe.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: June 8, 2022
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Opinion

Xi, Biden switching strategies for dominance

The US now sees Asia more through an economic lens, while China shifts toward a security focus

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade Date: May 25, 2022
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Past Event

Past Event

Is China’s private sector advancing or retreating?

A look into the Chinese private sector.

Speakers: Reinhard Bütikofer, Nicolas Véron and Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: May 18, 2022
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Podcast

Podcast

The cost of China's dynamic zero-COVID policy

What does zero-COVID mean for both China and the global economy?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: May 11, 2022
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Past Event

Past Event

From viruses to wars: recent disruptions to global trade and value chains

How have events in recent years impacted global trade and value chains and how can we strengthen these against future disruptions?

Speakers: Dalia Marin, Adil Mohommad and André Sapir Topic: Global economy and trade Date: April 27, 2022
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Opinion

China’s Covid policy to be year’s largest economic shock

Beijing’s ‘dynamic zero-Covid’ policy could devastate the domestic economy, but the effects will also be felt globally.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade Date: April 26, 2022
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Podcast

Podcast

What to expect from China's innovation drive?

How much has China progressed technologically?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Global economy and trade Date: April 6, 2022
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Blog Post

Is the private sector retreating in China? Not among its largest companies

Though private ownership does not free companies from the pervasive influence of the Communist Party, China’s private and state sectors are not equivalent; China’s largest firms are growing faster than their state-owned counterparts.

By: Tianlei Huang and Nicolas Véron Topic: Global economy and trade Date: April 5, 2022
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Working Paper

The private sector advances in China: The evolving ownership structures of the largest companies in the Xi Jinping era

This paper documents recent structural changes in China’s corporate landscape, based on company level data, providing a complementary perspective to that of official Chinese statistics.

By: Tianlei Huang and Nicolas Véron Topic: Global economy and trade Date: April 5, 2022
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