Opinion

Eastern Germany’s New Growth Engine

Eastern Germany has suffered from three decades of deindustrialization since the collapse of communism, largely because of poor policy decisions. But by becoming an electric-vehicle powerhouse, the region can help to drive Europe's green transition and secure its own future prosperity.

By: Date: October 7, 2020 Topic: Macroeconomic policy

This opinion piece was originally published in Project Syndicate.

MUNICH – This week, Germany celebrates the 30th anniversary of its reunification. After years of frustration and gloom, the long-depressed east of the country – the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) – is finally experiencing fresh hope owing, to large new investments in electric-vehicle (EV) manufacturing.

Eastern Germany is fast becoming the European center of future electric mobility. Volkswagen is producing its ID.3 electric car in Zwickau and Dresden. BMW already manufactures its i3 electric car in Leipzig, while the Chinese firm CATL will produce EV battery cells for BMW at a factory near Erfurt in Thuringia. Another Chinese company, Farasis Energy, will make EV battery cells for Mercedes-Benz in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. In addition, Tesla last year announced plans to manufacture electric cars and batteries at a new “gigafactory” in Brandenburg, close to Berlin.

Why are all these firms coming to eastern Germany – and why now? The region’s high wages, especially relative to those in Eastern Europe, had long made it an unattractive investment location. But two recent policy announcements have changed the dynamic.

First, in February 2019, German Economy Minister Peter Altmaier unveiled his “National Industrial Strategy 2030,” which, among other things, calls for establishing battery-cell production in Germany and elsewhere in Europe. His announcement followed the European Commission’s 2017 launch of the European Battery Alliance, which aims to create a competitive European battery sector. Later in 2019, the Commission introduced Battery 2030+, a long-term initiative bringing together research institutions, industry, and public funding institutions.

These commitments from the European Union and the German government triggered a state-led process of agglomeration. EV producers now have an incentive to move to Germany and other European countries in order to be near other EV manufacturers and production sites for key battery inputs.

Second, the European Green Deal introduced by European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen aims to support regions in phasing out coal, including by providing subsidies to mitigate the economic impact. Germany has some of the world’s largest coal deposits, two-thirds of which are located in the eastern states of Saxony and Brandenburg. EU funding under the Green Deal is enabling eastern German states to offer large subsidies to attract EV producers to the region.

The German government’s commitment to electric cars, along with the EU’s financial transfers, have given eastern Germany a new opportunity to reindustrialize, and thus generate prosperity and pride. More firms will move to eastern Germany as car companies localize their supply chains. Domestically produced EVs will become cheaper as competition among manufacturers increases and battery cells no longer need to be imported from Asia. Finally, increased local demand for labor will boost incomes.

This is a major development. Eastern Germany has suffered from three decades of deindustrialization since the collapse of communism, largely because of poor policy decisions. Prior to the October 1990 reunification, the West German government decided to liberalize trade with the DDR overnight, and the East German Ostmark was converted into Deutsche Marks at a rate of 1:1. The currency reform caused eastern German wages to rise to 70% of western German levels, even though productivity in the east was only 30% of that in the west. As a result, East Germany’s manufacturing sector immediately went bankrupt.

The Treuhandanstalt, a new institution established by the DDR government, privatized and sold eastern German firms and assets to western companies, often at a symbolic price of one DM, in exchange for job guarantees. This huge subsidy gave western firms an incentive to move to the east, even though the region had lost its comparative low-wage advantage. The tense political atmosphere of those days is well captured in the excellent Netflix series A Perfect Crime, which documents the 1991 assassination of Detlev Rohwedder, the Treuhandanstalt’s first president.

The German government subsequently erred in dissolving the Treuhandanstalt after it had sold almost all eastern German firms to western investors. Without the agency’s subsidies, investment in eastern Germany dried up, and the region’s convergence toward western German per capita income levels stalled.

Germany’s bumpy reunification process was shaped by two false narratives. The first was that the Treuhandanstalt was selling out eastern Germany by giving away valuable assets to western firms. But these giveaways were necessary subsidies to induce firms to come to a region that had lost its cost advantage following the currency reform.

The second damaging narrative was that eastern Germany had nothing to sell to the world and a low-value manufacturing sector. But the region had nothing to sell because the currency reform robbed it of the cost advantage that countries at a similar level of development usually enjoy. This narrative had a harmful effect on eastern Germans’ psyche, because people suddenly felt they were worth nothing in a market economy. Their self-esteem was probably higher under communism, because East Germany was regarded as a manufacturing pioneer in the Soviet bloc and exported successfully to other Eastern European countries.

In 1990, then-German Chancellor Helmut Kohl predicted “flourishing landscapes” in the east of the country. Many have long regarded his vision as too optimistic, and it still has not materialized. But by becoming an EV powerhouse, eastern Germany can help to drive the green transition and prove Kohl right.


Republishing and referencing

Bruegel considers itself a public good and takes no institutional standpoint.

Due to copyright agreements we ask that you kindly email request to republish opinions that have appeared in print to [email protected].

Read article
 

Blog Post

European governance

Germany’s post-pandemic current account surplus

The pandemic has increased the net lending position of the German corporate sector. By incentivising private investment, policymakers could trigger a virtuous cycle of increasing wages, decreasing corporate net lending, which would eventually lead to a reduction of the economy-wide current account surplus.

By: Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: October 21, 2021
Read article More on this topic
 

Blog Post

German elections: seizing the moral and economic opportunity of global health security

The new German government should play its part in global health security and preparedness.

By: Amanda Glassman and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Global economy and trade Date: September 24, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

Germany’s foreign economic policy: four essential steps

Germany and the EU need to develop a strong and proactive agenda to manage foreign economic relations, which are essential for German and European prosperity.

By: Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: September 23, 2021
Read article Download PDF More on this topic More by this author
 

External Publication

The Value of Money, Controversial Economic Cultures in Europe: Italy and Germany

A discussion of Italian and German macro-economic cultures and performances.

By: Francesco Papadia Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 10, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

Inflation!? Germany, the euro area and the European Central Bank

There is concern in Germany about rising prices, but expectations and wage data show no sign of excess pressures; German inflation should exceed 2% to support euro-area rebalancing but is unlikely to do so on sustained basis.

By: Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 9, 2021
Read about event More on this topic
 

Past Event

Past Event

An alpine divide? Comparing economic cultures in Germany and Italy

A discussion of Italian and German macro-economic cultures and performances.

Speakers: Thomas Mayer, Patricia Mosser, Marianne Nessén, Hiroshi Nakaso, Francesco Papadia, André Sapir and Jean-Claude Trichet Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: April 13, 2021
Read article Download PDF More on this topic
 

Working Paper

COVID-19 credit-support programmes in Europe’s five largest economies

This paper assesses COVID-19 credit-support programmes in five of the largest European economies, and examines how countries have dealt with trade-offs raised by the programmes.

By: Julia Anderson, Francesco Papadia and Nicolas Véron Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: February 24, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

Has the European Union squandered its coronavirus vaccination opportunity?

The European Union’s purchases of frontrunner coronavirus vaccines are insufficient for the population’s near-term needs. The shortfall could have healthcare consequences and might delay economic reopening. Lessons should be learned for future pandemics.

By: J. Scott Marcus Topic: Digital economy and innovation Date: January 6, 2021
Read article
 

Blog Post

Climate finance: an agenda for EU coordination with emerging markets

Addressing the challenge of financing the low-carbon transition will require substantial investment in the European Union and in emerging and developing economies. Sustainable finance frameworks have proliferated in advanced and emerging markets but fragmentation of financial flows due to different classification systems and standards for green financial instruments is a real risk. Ensuring consistency should be a core agenda for the new International Platform on Sustainable Finance.

By: Alexander Lehmann and Mark Plant Topic: Global economy and trade, Green economy Date: September 9, 2020
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

The Wirecard debacle calls for a rethink of EU, not just German, financial reporting supervision

The spectacular collapse of Wirecard AG should serve as a wake-up call for the European Union on the need to pool the relevant supervisory mandates at EU level.

By: Nicolas Véron Topic: Banking and capital markets Date: June 30, 2020
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

The message in the ruling

The German Constitutional Court's ruling on the ECB's asset purchase programme is open to much criticism but it can hardly be blamed for raising an important question.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: May 12, 2020
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Blog Post

Banking regulation in the Euro Area: Germany is different

Despite progress in recent years towards a single banking policy framework in the euro area – a banking union – much of the German banking system has remained partly sheltered from uniform rules and disciplines that now apply to nearly all the area’s other banks. The resulting differences in regulatory regimes could generate vulnerabilities in the still-incomplete banking union, which is being tested in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

By: Nicolas Véron Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: May 7, 2020
Load more posts