External Publication

Liability: When Things Go Wrong in an Increasingly Interconnected and Autonomous World: A European View

In the following article, Scott Marcus first considers the sources of potential defects and what might be done to redress them. He then goes on to consider what constitutes a product defect as well as the associated liability in light of recent (and potential future) EU Directives.

By: and Date: June 6, 2019 Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy

The Internet of Things (IoT) potentially offers society not only economic advantage but also gains in product quality and safety. At the same time, IoT (in conjunction with related technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, to which we collectively refer as IoT/AI/ML) may open new potential product safety and liability exposures.

What problems might be anticipated? Are potential exposures dealt with adequately by existing legal and policy measures, or do they call for some re-thinking of existing law and regulation? The European Union (EU) has adopted a common approach to two key groups of policy instruments in order to facilitate trade of goods and services throughout the EU: (1) product safety regulation, which establishes standards to which goods must conform; and (2) liability regulation, which enables consumers to recover their costs if they are harmed or injured due to a malfunctioning product (or potentially a defective service). Both are important, but our focus here is on liability.

A few key questions emerge:

Who is responsible? The merchant? The manufacturer? The programmer? Or the service or device itself? Value chains in this interconnected universe are complex. The use of machine learning poses particularly daunting challenges.

How is the user to achieve redress? The burden of proof must be neither too high (making it impractical  or injured parties to receive compensation) nor too low (which risks needlessly impeding innovation).

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Policy Contribution

Commercialisation contracts: European support for low-carbon technology deployment

To cut the cost of decarbonisation significantly, the best solution would be to provide investors with a predictable carbon price that corresponds to the envisaged decarbonisation pathway.

By: Ben McWilliams and Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate Date: July 1, 2021
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Blog Post

Workers can unlock the artificial intelligence revolution

Employers and artificial intelligence developers should ensure new technologies work for workers by making them trustworthy, easy to use and valuable in day-to-day work.

By: Mia Hoffmann and Laura Nurski Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: June 30, 2021
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Blog Post

Algorithmic management is the past, not the future of work

Algorithmic management is the twenty-first century’s scientific management. Job quality measures should be included explicitly in health and safety risk assessments for workplace artificial-intelligence systems.

By: Laura Nurski Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: May 6, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

AI regulation at the service of industrial policy?

What role should the EU play in the regulation of AI?

Speakers: Julia Anderson, Joanna Bryson, Annika Linck and Martin Ulbrich Topic: Innovation & Competition Policy Date: April 22, 2021
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Opinion

We need more bias in artificial intelligence

What makes one vision more desirable than another is not its neutrality, but whether it can better serve one’s goals in the context of where those goals are being pursued.

By: Mario Mariniello Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Date: April 21, 2021
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Blog Post

The impact of COVID-19 on artificial intelligence in banking

COVID-19 has not dampened the appetite of European banks for machine learning and data science, but may in the short term have limited their artificial-intelligence investment capacity.

By: Julia Anderson, David Bholat, Mohammed Gharbawi and Oliver Thew Topic: Finance & Financial Regulation Date: April 15, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

Low interest rates: a transatlantic phenomenon

Structural factors are putting downward pressure on rates: is it time for macroeconomic policy to play second fiddle in managing demand?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance Date: March 10, 2021
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Policy Contribution

Low interest rates in Europe and the US: one trend, two stories

Interest rates have been on a long-term decline, associated with declining productivity growth. To tackle this, the priorities are to reduce market concentration and, in Europe, change the financing model.

By: Maria Demertzis and Nicola Viegi Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Global Economics & Governance Date: March 10, 2021
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Opinion

Will COVID accelerate productivity growth?

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an increasing number of rich-country firms to reduce their reliance on global supply chains and invest more in robots at home. But it is probably too soon to tell whether this switch will increase productivity growth in advanced economies.

By: Dalia Marin Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Global Economics & Governance Date: February 10, 2021
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External Publication

European Parliament

Data flows, artificial intelligence and international trade: impacts and prospects for the value chains of the future

In-depth briefing and analysis on the issues of digital trade and the geopolitics of trade provided to the European Parliament.

By: Dennis Görlich, Michèle Finck, Georgios Petropoulos, Niclas Poitiers and André Sapir Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, European Parliament Date: November 26, 2020
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External Publication

Perspective of comprehensive and comprehensible multi-model energy and climate science in Europe

A comprehensive and comprehensible multi-model framework offers a real example of “collective” science diplomacy, as an instrument to further support the ambitious goals of the EU Green Deal, in compliance with the EU claim to responsible research.

By: Alexandros Nikas, Ajay Gambhir, Evelina Trutnevyte, Konstantinos Koasidis, Henrik Lund, Jakob Zinck Thellufsen, Didier Mayer, Georg Zachmann, Luis Javier Miguel, Noelia Ferreras Alonso, Ida Sognnæs, Glen Peters, Enzo Colombo, Mark Howells, Adam D. Hawkes, Machteld Van Den Broek, Dirk-Jan van de Ven, Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino, Alexandros Flamos and Haris Doukas Topic: Energy & Climate Date: November 5, 2020
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Blog Post

L'IA a besoin d'humains qualifiés

L'adoption des technologies IA repose moins sur des scientifiques de haut niveau que sur des spécialistes des données et des programmeurs compétents qui peuvent mettre en pratique les algorithmes d'apprentissage profond existants à des fins commerciales.

By: Julia Anderson and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European Macroeconomics & Governance, Innovation & Competition Policy Date: October 5, 2020
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