External Publication

Global interpersonal income inequality decline: The role of China and India

Without China and India, global interpersonal income inequality in 143 countries was higher in 2015 than in 1988. Has the rest of the world really become more equal?

By: Date: May 14, 2019 Topic: Global economy and trade

While various methodologies have been used in the literature to estimate global interpersonal income inequality, the accuracy of these methods has not so far been tested. We compare the accuracy of four methods and find that the Lorenz curve regression method is the most accurate and robust, while the accuracy of the identical quantile income and the Kernel density methods depends on the level of detail about income shares.

The simple two-parameter distribution method is also very accurate when either the Log-normal or the Weibull distribution is used. Using the two-parameter distribution method, we show that global income inequality among the citizens of 145 countries declined significantly between 1988 and 2015, largely because of the convergence of income per capita, which was offset to a small degree by the increase in within-country inequalities and the increased population share of poorer and more unequal countries. Regional income inequality declined in most parts of the world, with the notable exception of developing Asia where it has increased. Despite the large increases in within-China and within-India inequality, income convergence of the two countries drove down global income inequality. Without China and India, global interpersonal income inequality in 143 countries was higher in 2015 than in 1988, indicating that more than half of the world has not really become more equal.

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Blog Post

Inclusive growth

Making antitrust work for, not against, gig workers and the self-employed

Policymakers should act to deal with labour-market concentration trends that potentially harm workers, especially gig workers and the self-employed.

By: Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 11, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

Is tech redefining the workplace for women?

Laura Nurski, Sabine Theresia Köszegi and Giuseppe Porcaro explore the relationship between artificial intelligence and job transformation and ask whether the impact differs by gender.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 6, 2021
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Opinion

The pandemic’s uncertain impact on productivity

The pandemic has certainly permanently affected our way of working. Whether this is for the better remains to be seen.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: September 28, 2021
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Opinion

The end of globalisation as we know it

The tension between the unprecedented need for global collective action and a growing aspiration to rebuild political communities behind national borders is a defining challenge for today’s policymakers.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: Global economy and trade Date: July 1, 2021
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External Publication

The Value of Money, Controversial Economic Cultures in Europe: Italy and Germany

A discussion of Italian and German macro-economic cultures and performances.

By: Francesco Papadia Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 10, 2021
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Opinion

Inflation, inequality and immigration: Spelling the digital recovery with three “I”s

The digital transition offers us a new opportunity to reach out across the global economy - hopefully we will find the strength to use it.

By: Rebecca Christie Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Global economy and trade Date: June 3, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

Women, Covid-19 & The EU Recovery Plan

How can we ensure that the recovery plan doesn’t leave women behind when 84% of working women in the EU aged 15-64 are employed by services that were predominantly impacted by Covid-19 restrictions?

Speakers: Mary Collins, Maria Demertzis, Alexandra Geese, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Dan Mobley, Naomi O'Leary and Emma Rainey Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 2, 2021
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Policy Contribution

European governance

The great COVID-19 divergence: managing a sustainable and equitable recovery in the European Union

Policymakers must act to prevent lasting divergence within the EU and to prevent scarring from the fallout from the pandemic.

By: Grégory Claeys, Zsolt Darvas, Maria Demertzis and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: European governance, Macroeconomic policy Date: May 20, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

The Sound of Gita Gopinath

IMF Chief Economist Gita Gopinath joins Bruegel Director Guntram Wolff to discuss the uneven recovery from the pandemic with a live clubhouse audience.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: May 6, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

Divergent Recoveries from the Pandemic: Conversation with IMF Chief Economist Gita Gopinath and Bruegel Director Guntram Wolff

In this episode of The Sound of Economics Live, IMF Chief Economist Gita Gopinath and Bruegel Director Guntram Wolff will debate the uneven recovery from the pandemic.

Speakers: Gita Gopinath and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Global economy and trade Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: May 5, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

Africa's battle with COVID-19

How can we ensure a worldwide balanced and inclusive recovery from the Covid pandemic?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: April 21, 2021
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Opinion

It’s time for a green social contract

The green transformation will have far-reaching socio-economic implications. Action is needed to ensure domestic and international social equity and fairness.

By: Simone Tagliapietra Topic: Green economy Date: April 12, 2021
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