Download publication

Working Paper

Europe in the midst of China-US strategic competition: What are the European Union’s options?

With the trade conflict between the United States and China bringing China-US strategic competition into the open, the European Union faces an urgent question: how to position itself in the competition.

By: and Date: April 8, 2019 Topic: Global economy and trade

With the trade conflict between the United States and China bringing China-US strategic competition into the open, the European Union faces an urgent question: how to position itself in the competition. This paper reviews the impact of the US-led trade war against China and its immediate consequences for China, the US and the EU. Although protectionism can never be growth enhancing, European companies could see gains if the trade confrontation between China and the US ends up reducing their bilateral trade to the benefit of European companies that export to China. This is because US exports to China are concentrated in sectors that are also key for the EU’s exports to China, with the exception of energy and agricultural products. However, a solution to the US-China trade conflict that artificially increases Chinese imports from the US can only hurt European exporters. A much broader and structural deal which pushes China to reform and open up would not only be beneficial for the US but also for the EU and the rest of the world.

Against this background, this paper reviews the EU’s options in the new world of strategic confrontation between China and the US. The most obvious option would be to continue to safeguard multilateralism, but the EU should not be naïve in remaining alone, among major economic blocs, pushing for such an option. The second option would be for the EU to become more reliant on the Transatlantic Alliance. The last option would be for the EU to move its centre of gravity towards China, or at least to remain neutral between the US and China. While it might seem unrealistic today, this last option might need to be explored if the US continues to move away from multilateralism and, to some degree, from the Transatlantic Alliance. For the time being, the European Commission seems to have stepped up its thinking about the necessary conditions for stronger economic cooperation with China, which is already an important step in this direction.

Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

In the electric vehicle race, China coming first

China is not only a producer and consumer of EVs, but also of the battery components on which they depend.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Green economy Date: January 26, 2022
Read about event More on this topic
 

Upcoming Event

Feb
2
14:00

Towards an inventory of corporate subsidies by China, the EU and the USA

In this event panelists will discuss the latest report of the 28th Global Trade Alert Report, 'Subsidies and market access: Towards an inventory of corporate subsidies by China, the European Union and the United States'.

Speakers: Simon J. Evenett, Denis Redonnet, André Sapir and Reinhilde Veugelers Topic: Global economy and trade Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Opinion

How Chinese competition helps western conglomerates

Firms like GE and Siemens may well find that their decision to split their businesses into multiple companies leads to increased profits and higher stock prices. But recent research indicates that this is not the only way conglomerates can boost efficiency.

By: Dalia Marin Topic: Global economy and trade Date: January 17, 2022
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

Understanding Japan’s economic relations with China

What can Europe learn?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: January 12, 2022
Read about event More on this topic
 

Past Event

Past Event

Global Gateway vs. Belt and Road Initiative

How does the EU's Global Gateway plan compare to China's Belt and Road initiative?

Speakers: Alicia García-Herrero, Guntram B. Wolff and Reinhard Bütikofer Topic: Global economy and trade Date: January 11, 2022
Read article More on this topic
 

Opinion

How an open climate club can generate carbon dividends for the poor

The German-led G7 can accelerate decarbonisation while tackling climate justice.

By: Andreas Goldthau and Simone Tagliapietra Topic: Green economy Date: January 11, 2022
Read article Download PDF More on this topic More by this author
 

Working Paper

Timely measurement of real effective exchange rates

This paper contributes to the measurement of monthly consumer price index-based real effective exchange rates with two main novelties.

By: Zsolt Darvas Topic: Global economy and trade Date: December 23, 2021
Read article
 

Blog Post

European governanceInclusive growth

12 Charts for 21

A selection of charts from Bruegel’s weekly newsletter, analysis of the year and what it meant for the economy in Europe and the world.

By: Hèctor Badenes, Henry Naylor, Giuseppe Porcaro and Yuyun Zhan Topic: Banking and capital markets, Digital economy and innovation, European governance, Global economy and trade, Green economy, Inclusive growth, Macroeconomic policy Date: December 21, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

External Publication

L’Union européenne et les États-Unis, un an après

Après une année troublée par Kaboul et AUKUS, qu'avons-nous retenu de l'an I de la présidence Biden ? Maria Demertzis revient sur les évènements marquants de l'année 2021 pour la relation entre les États-Unis et l'Union européenne.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Global economy and trade Date: December 8, 2021
Read article More on this topic More by this author
 

Podcast

Podcast

What to watch in 2022: China's economic outlook

Our end of 2021 recap of China’s economic activities.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: December 8, 2021
Read article More by this author
 

Blog Post

European governance

The Global Gateway: a real step towards a stronger Europe in the world?

Disappointment at the lack of fresh cash from European Union global connectivity strategy is short-sighted: Europe supports global development more than any other country in the world. Using existing funds more strategically is the right priority for now.

By: Simone Tagliapietra Topic: European governance, Global economy and trade Date: December 7, 2021
Read article Download PDF More on this topic More by this author
 

External Publication

Chinese economic statecraft: what to expect in the next five years?

Chapter from 'Storms Ahead: the Future Geoeconomic world order' on the expectations from the next five years of Chinese economic policy, published on 27 October 2021.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade Date: November 26, 2021
Load more posts