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Working Paper

Greening monetary policy

The author proposes a tilting approach to steer the allocation of the Eurosystem’s assets and collateral towards low-carbon sectors, which would reduce the cost of capital for these sectors relative to high-carbon sectors. Central banks have already started to look at climate-related risks in the context of financial stability. Should they also take the carbon intensity of assets into account in the context of monetary policy?

By: Date: February 19, 2019 Topic: Energy & Climate

Central banks have already started to look at climate-related risks in the context of financial stability. Should they also take the carbon intensity of assets into account in the context of monetary policy? The guiding principle in the implementation of monetary policy has been ‘market neutrality’, whereby the central bank buys a proportion of the market portfolio of available corporate and bank bonds (in addition to government bonds). But this implies a carbon bias, because capital-intensive companies tend to be more carbon intensive.

The author first reviews the legal mandate of the Eurosystem. While the primary objective is price stability, the Treaty on European Union allows the greening of monetary policy as a secondary objective. He proposes a tilting approach to steer or tilt the allocation of the Eurosystem’s assets and collateral towards low-carbon sectors, which would reduce the cost of capital for these sectors relative to high-carbon sectors. This allocation policy must be designed so it does not affect the effective implementation of monetary policy.

The working of the tilting approach is calibrated with data on European corporate and bank bonds. We find that a modest tilting approach could reduce carbon emissions in the corporate and bank bond portfolio by 44 per cent and lower the cost of capital of low carbon companies by 4 basis points. Our findings also suggest that such a low carbon allocation can be done without undue interference with the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. Price stability, the primary objective, is, and should remain, the priority of the Eurosystem.

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Opinion

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The green transformation will have far-reaching socio-economic implications. Action is needed to ensure domestic and international social equity and fairness.

By: Simone Tagliapietra Topic: Energy & Climate Date: April 12, 2021
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This closed-door event will discuss standards for the measurement and disclosure of climate-related exposures.

Speakers: Carole Crozat, Sonja Gibbs, Alexander Lehmann, Sara Lovisolo and Fayyaz Muneer Topic: Finance & Financial Regulation Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels
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By: Georg Zachmann Topic: Energy & Climate Date: April 1, 2021
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Past Event

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Speakers: Amar Bhattacharya, Marco Bucci, Adriana Calderon, Maria Demertzis, Matthias Helble, Elly Schlein, Niclas Poitiers and Gelsomina Vigliotti Topic: Energy & Climate Date: March 15, 2021
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By: Rebecca Christie Topic: Finance & Financial Regulation Date: March 11, 2021
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Policy Contribution

A whole-economy carbon price for Europe and how to get there

Putting carbon pricing at the centre of the EU climate policy architecture would provide major benefits. Obtaining these benefits requires a uniform, credible and durable carbon price – the economic first-best solution, however, several preconditions required to attain this solution are not yet met. This paper proposes a sequenced approach to ensure convergence of the policy mix on the first-best in the long run.

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By: Mark Leonard, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Jeremy Shapiro, Simone Tagliapietra and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Energy & Climate, Global Economics & Governance Date: March 5, 2021
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