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External Publication

Review of EU-third country cooperation on policies falling within the ITRE domain in relation to Brexit

What is the possible future relationship between the EU and the UK in light of Brexit? The report provides a critical assessment of the implications of existing models of cooperation between third countries and the European Union on energy, electronic communications, research policy and small business policy.

By: , , , , , and Date: July 5, 2017 Topic: Macroeconomic policy

This study was prepared for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament (ITRE). Copyright remains with the European Parliament at all times.

Bruegel scholars have just completed a study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) of the European Parliament that seeks to help Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) and the general public to understand the possible future relationship between the EU and the UK in light of Brexit.

The report provides a critical assessment of the implications of existing models of cooperation between third countries (countries that are not EU Member States) and the European Union. The scope of the study corresponds to the thematic areas for which the ITRE Committee is responsible: energy, electronic communications, research policy and small business policy.

For each of these four thematic areas, the authors present as case studies three countries that have some existing form of cooperation with the EU — for instance through the European Economic Area (EEA) and/or the European Free Trade Area (EFTA). For each thematic area, one of the case study countries participates neither in EEA nor in EFTA, but has some other form of cooperation with the Union. We use the arrangements that the UK itself has today as an EU Member State as a benchmark for comparison for each of the four thematic areas. Using the UK as a benchmark also enables us to provide additional UK-specific background to those responsible for the Brexit negotiations.

In all respects, EEA membership is the option (other than retaining EU membership) that best preserves the benefits to the EU of the UK’s EU membership, including scale economies and regulatory harmonisation. It is also the mechanism that best adapts to changes in EU law and regulation over time.

Bilateral arrangements in conjunction with EFTA membership (the Swiss case) are clearly inferior to EEA membership from the EU’s perspective in terms of the degree of consistency achieved, the degree of economic convergence achieved, and the ability to adapt to changes in the EU acquis.

The scholars also assessed in detail the merits from the EU’s perspective of participation in the Energy Community (as with Ukraine); a new generation FTA (as with South Korea); and participation in the H2020 programme and the COSME programme. Each of these mechanisms could potentially help to retain some of the benefits of the UK’s membership in the EU in a specific thematic area, but none in and of itself provides a comprehensive, effective overall solution.

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The only quick-fix to Europe’s energy price crisis is saving energy

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Europe’s gas supply security could more effectively be safeguarded by ensuring that unused alternatives are maintained.

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The ultimate answer to the question on whether climate change can be tackled without ditching economic growth depends on our willingness to step up climate action massively.

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Brexit and European finance: Prolonged limbo

It will take longer than many had anticipated for the dust to settle on the post-Brexit financial landscape and its respective implications for the EU and the UK.

By: Nicolas Véron Topic: Banking and capital markets Date: September 24, 2021
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Exploding energy prices

Why the sudden spike in European electricity and gas prices?

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Europe doesn’t need a ‘Mega-Fab’

Europe should defend its existing dominance in equipment manufacturing for semiconductors and invest in chip design instead of luring high-end fabrication to its shores.

By: Niclas Poitiers Topic: Global economy and trade Date: September 22, 2021
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Opening up digital platforms and reducing anticompetitive risks

The current convergence in measures to open up digital platforms leaves a door open to some form of international coordination.

By: Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Digital economy and innovation Date: September 22, 2021
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Working Paper

Can climate change be tackled without ditching economic growth?

The notion of degrowth to reduce greenhouse gas emissions appears unrealistic; decoupling of emissions from growth is in principle possible but requires unprecedented efforts.

By: Klaas Lenaerts, Simone Tagliapietra and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Green economy Date: September 16, 2021
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Is Europe’s gas and electricity price surge a one-off?

Surging natural gas prices in Europe, driven by rising demand and tight supply, are pushing up electricity prices; to prevent volatility, governments need to commit more clearly to a low-carbon future.

By: Simone Tagliapietra and Georg Zachmann Topic: Green economy Date: September 13, 2021
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External Publication

Conditions are ideal for a new climate club

The technical and political conditions are ideal for the creation of a climate club to catalyse tougher climate action worldwide.

By: Simone Tagliapietra and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Green economy Date: September 9, 2021
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EU climate plan should involve taxing pollution, not borders

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Past Event

Past Event

Academic lecture: International technology competition

Bruegel Annual Meetings, Day 3 - On the final day of the Annual Meetings, our Director Guntram Wolf sits with Keyu Jin to discuss international competition policy.

Speakers: Keyu Jin, J. Scott Marcus and Guntram B. Wolff Topic: Digital economy and innovation Location: Palais des Académies, Rue Ducale 1, Brussels Date: September 3, 2021
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