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Working Paper

Some are more equal than others: new estimates of global and regional inequality

In this Working Paper, Zsolt Darvas estimates the global and regional distribution of income and calculates statistics of global and regional income inequality.

By: and Date: November 8, 2016 Topic: Macroeconomic policy

Zsolt Darvas compares four methodologies to estimate the global distribution of income and find that many methods work well, but the method based on two-parameter distributions is more accurate than other methods.

This method is simpler, easier to implement and relies on a more internationally-comparable dataset of national income distributions than other approaches used in the literature to calculate the global distribution of income. Zsolt suggests a simulation-based technique to estimate the standard error of the global Gini coefficient.

Global income inequality among the citizens of 128 countries gradually declined in 1989-2013, largely due to convergence of income per capita, which was offset by a small degree the increase in within-country inequalities. The standard error of the global Gini coefficient is very small.

After 1994, market income inequality in the EU28 was at a level similar to market inequality in other parts of the world, but net inequality (after taxes and transfers) is at a much lower level and it declined between 1994 and 2008, since when it remained relatively stable.

Regional income inequality is much higher in Asia, Africa, the Commonwealth of Independent states and Latin America than in the EU28.In Asia, regional inequality has increased recent years, while it declined in the other three non-European regions.

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Policy Contribution

Inclusive growth

Better pensions for the European Union’s self-employed

What is the current state of pensions policy in Europe and how are independent workers treated compared with their traditionally employed counterparts?

By: Rebecca Christie, Monika Grzegorczyk and Diane Mulcahy Topic: Inclusive growth Date: March 24, 2022
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Podcast

Podcast

China's human capital problem

How are industrialisation and automation affecting Chinese workers?

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Global economy and trade Date: February 9, 2022
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Blog Post

Who is suffering most from rising inflation?

The lowest income households are suffering disproportionally from the current inflation increase, with rising energy prices the main culprit.

By: Grégory Claeys and Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: February 1, 2022
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Blog Post

Inclusive growth

The triple constraint on artificial-intelligence advancement in Europe

Skills, data and financing shortcomings constrain artificial-intelligence innovation in Europe.

By: Mia Hoffmann and Laura Nurski Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: December 6, 2021
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External Publication

Chinese economic statecraft: what to expect in the next five years?

Chapter from 'Storms Ahead: the Future Geoeconomic world order' on the expectations from the next five years of Chinese economic policy, published on 27 October 2021.

By: Alicia García-Herrero Topic: Global economy and trade Date: November 26, 2021
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Blog Post

European governanceInclusive growth

The socioeconomic effects of COVID-19 on women

The pandemic has disproportionately affected women both professionally and at home. Although the gender gap in labour force participation since the onset of the pandemic hasn't worsened, policy still needs to tackle existing gender gaps, which for some EU countries are very substantive.

By: Maria Demertzis and Mia Hoffmann Topic: European governance, Inclusive growth Date: November 3, 2021
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Blog Post

Strong, balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth? The G20 and the pandemic

The G20 is not doing enough to support strong, balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth in the wake of COVID-19, with the poorest countries left behind by the recovery.

By: Suman Bery and Pauline Weil Topic: Global economy and trade Date: October 29, 2021
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Parliamentary Testimony

European ParliamentInclusive growth

Understanding the socioeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women

Testimony before the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) on the consequences of the pandemic on women.

By: Maria Demertzis and Mia Hoffmann Topic: European Parliament, Inclusive growth, Macroeconomic policy Date: October 27, 2021
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Blog Post

Inclusive growth

Making antitrust work for, not against, gig workers and the self-employed

Policymakers should act to deal with labour-market concentration trends that potentially harm workers, especially gig workers and the self-employed.

By: Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 11, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

Is tech redefining the workplace for women?

Laura Nurski, Sabine Theresia Köszegi and Giuseppe Porcaro explore the relationship between artificial intelligence and job transformation and ask whether the impact differs by gender.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 6, 2021
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Opinion

The pandemic’s uncertain impact on productivity

The pandemic has certainly permanently affected our way of working. Whether this is for the better remains to be seen.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: September 28, 2021
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External Publication

Winners and losers of energy and climate policy – How can the costs be redistributed?

Who should bear more and who less of the burden achieving climate policy goals?

By: Gustav Fredriksson and Georg Zachmann Topic: Green economy Date: September 24, 2021
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