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Working Paper

Some are more equal than others: new estimates of global and regional inequality

In this Working Paper, Zsolt Darvas estimates the global and regional distribution of income and calculates statistics of global and regional income inequality.

By: and Date: November 8, 2016 Topic: Macroeconomic policy

Zsolt Darvas compares four methodologies to estimate the global distribution of income and find that many methods work well, but the method based on two-parameter distributions is more accurate than other methods.

This method is simpler, easier to implement and relies on a more internationally-comparable dataset of national income distributions than other approaches used in the literature to calculate the global distribution of income. Zsolt suggests a simulation-based technique to estimate the standard error of the global Gini coefficient.

Global income inequality among the citizens of 128 countries gradually declined in 1989-2013, largely due to convergence of income per capita, which was offset by a small degree the increase in within-country inequalities. The standard error of the global Gini coefficient is very small.

After 1994, market income inequality in the EU28 was at a level similar to market inequality in other parts of the world, but net inequality (after taxes and transfers) is at a much lower level and it declined between 1994 and 2008, since when it remained relatively stable.

Regional income inequality is much higher in Asia, Africa, the Commonwealth of Independent states and Latin America than in the EU28.In Asia, regional inequality has increased recent years, while it declined in the other three non-European regions.

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Blog Post

Inclusive growth

Making antitrust work for, not against, gig workers and the self-employed

Policymakers should act to deal with labour-market concentration trends that potentially harm workers, especially gig workers and the self-employed.

By: Georgios Petropoulos Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 11, 2021
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Podcast

Podcast

Is tech redefining the workplace for women?

Laura Nurski, Sabine Theresia Köszegi and Giuseppe Porcaro explore the relationship between artificial intelligence and job transformation and ask whether the impact differs by gender.

By: The Sound of Economics Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth Date: October 6, 2021
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Opinion

The pandemic’s uncertain impact on productivity

The pandemic has certainly permanently affected our way of working. Whether this is for the better remains to be seen.

By: Maria Demertzis Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: September 28, 2021
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External Publication

Winners and losers of energy and climate policy – How can the costs be redistributed?

Who should bear more and who less of the burden achieving climate policy goals?

By: Gustav Fredriksson and Georg Zachmann Topic: Green economy Date: September 24, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

How to strike the right balance between the three pillars of the pension system?

In this event panelists will discuss the future of European pension schemes.

Speakers: Elsa Fornero, Svend E. Hougaard Jensen and Suvi-Anne Siimes Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: September 23, 2021
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Opinion

Inclusive growth

For remote work to work, new ground rules are needed

The pandemic has shown workers and employers that another way to work is possible. The European Union should develop a framework to facilitate hybrid work.

By: Mario Mariniello Topic: Inclusive growth Date: September 23, 2021
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External Publication

A Safety Net for the Green Economy

How to protect workers hurt by the fight against climate change.

By: Simone Tagliapietra Topic: Green economy Date: July 20, 2021
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Opinion

The end of globalisation as we know it

The tension between the unprecedented need for global collective action and a growing aspiration to rebuild political communities behind national borders is a defining challenge for today’s policymakers.

By: Jean Pisani-Ferry Topic: Global economy and trade Date: July 1, 2021
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External Publication

The Value of Money, Controversial Economic Cultures in Europe: Italy and Germany

A discussion of Italian and German macro-economic cultures and performances.

By: Francesco Papadia Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 10, 2021
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Opinion

Inflation, inequality and immigration: Spelling the digital recovery with three “I”s

The digital transition offers us a new opportunity to reach out across the global economy - hopefully we will find the strength to use it.

By: Rebecca Christie Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Global economy and trade Date: June 3, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

Women, Covid-19 & The EU Recovery Plan

How can we ensure that the recovery plan doesn’t leave women behind when 84% of working women in the EU aged 15-64 are employed by services that were predominantly impacted by Covid-19 restrictions?

Speakers: Mary Collins, Maria Demertzis, Alexandra Geese, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Dan Mobley, Naomi O'Leary and Emma Rainey Topic: Macroeconomic policy Date: June 2, 2021
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Past Event

Past Event

The Future of Work – a conversation with Commissioner Schmit

EU Commissioner for Jobs and Social Rights Nicolas Schmit joins Bruegel for a conversation around the future of work.

Speakers: Mario Mariniello and Nicolas Schmit Topic: Digital economy and innovation, Inclusive growth, Macroeconomic policy Location: Bruegel, Rue de la Charité 33, 1210 Brussels Date: May 25, 2021
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