Emerging economic powerhouses in Asia are building up their own scientific capabilities and surpassing the US and the EU's longheld positions of fastest growth in scientific research. This holds most for China, but is also true for Korea, Taiwan and Singapore. For India, it holds to a lesser extent, while Japan is, like the US and Europe, losing scientific power in relative terms. This changing geography of the scientific world reflects how selected Asian governments have come to view science and technology as integral to economic growth, and have consequently taken steps to develop their indigenous science and technology infrastructures. The rise of new emerging science powerhouses in Asia provokes the question of what the impact will be on science, innovation and economic growth.